Chapter 12 Study Guide-Geography

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How might landforms and resources have helped make Europe rich and powerful?
Access to seas/oceans made trade easier, abundant resources like coal and iron ore helped fuel industry. Also, having rich fertile soil to grow plenty of food helped as well.
How do mountains and uplands affect life in Europe?
They make the movement of people, goods, and ideas more difficult—they also affect the weather and climate.
How are rivers used in Europe?
to transport goods and people , throughout history they have linked Europe to other regions and to the rest of the world
What is the most important plain in Europe and where is it located? Why is it so important?
It is the Northern European Plain, it covers much of the northern part of Europe from France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and Poland. It is important because it produces a lot of food.
What resources does Europe have in abundance and why are they important?
coal and iron ore, important for making steel
Why do the Irish burn peat?
Because Ireland lacks other kinds of energy sources and peat can be burned as fuel
Why is Europe called the Peninsula of Peninsulas?
because it is one large peninsula made up of many smaller ones
What role did the waterways of Europe play in the development of its economy?
rivers helped move people, goods, and ideas within Europe and also flowed to the sea; the closeness of the sea helped Europeans trade with the rest of the world
Which regions of Europe have the harshest, coldest climate?
the Alps and far northern Scandinavia
Where is the tundra climate located—describe it.
very northern part of Europe—very cold, bitter, harsh winters with short days; very cool/cold summers with long days–little or no vegetation, permafrost is there
How do the North Atlantic Drift and the prevailing westerlies affect Europe’s climate?
the North Atlantic Drift is a warm ocean current which brings warmth to the area where the prevailing westerlies pick up the warmth and bring inland to Europe helping to moderate the climate
Why is northern Scandinavia sometimes called the Land of the Midnight Sun?
because its north of the Arctic Circle and has summer days when the sun never sets
What is a polder and where are they found?
land in the Netherlands that is drained and dried
What examples of human adaptation to the environment in Europe?
polders, canals i.e. using boats in Venice to get around
What are examples of an environment changed by humans?
building polders, deforestation, acid rain
How has pollution affected the city of Venice?
water pollution is affecting the foundations of buildings in Venice
How has industrialization hurt the forests of Europe?
factories emit chemicals in the air, which combine with water vapor and oxygen to create acid rain which has killed or damaged many of the trees; also, in earlier times wood was used for fuel so a lot of trees were cut down to provide fuel for industry
What are the four major climates found in Europe?
Tundra, Humid Continental, Marine West Coast, Mediterranean
Where are the most important oil fields of Europe located?
they are in the North Sea
Why did the Dutch build seaworks?
to reduce the destructive impact of the sea on their lives