Geography Ch. 4 Study Guide

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What is the correct order of zones that make up the Altitudinal Zonation model, from lowest elevation to highest elevation?
Tierra Caliente, Tierra Templada, Tierra Fria, and Tierra Helada
Which of the following is not a classification of altitudinal zonation?
Tierra Plata
In what country can both Mediterranean and Marine Coastal climates be found?
Chile
During El Nino conditions, which of the following frequently occurs in the Latin America region?
Warming of sea-surface temperatures
Which landform is not considered part of Latin America?
Guiana Shield
In the Altitudinal Zonation model, each zone is associated with distinct vegetation types and different agricultural activities. Which of the following relationships is correct regarding vegetation types?
Sugar can and bananas are in the Tierra Client zone
What Latin American country has the lowest percentage of urbanization and the highest total fertility rate?
Guatemala
What is one reason that the site of Mexico City has long been a center of population dating back from the days of the Aztecs to today?
The city is located on a flat plain where erosion from the surrounding volcanic mountains has provided very fertile soils
Which of the following is not true regarding international migration flows from Latin America?
No South Americans migrate to the United States
Which of the following statements is true regarding the diversity of landforms found in Latin America?
The chain of volcanoes stretching from Guatemala to Costa Rica lies along the Pacific coast of Central America
Which of the following is correct regarding climate patterns in Latin America?
The easterly trade winds bring moisture to the was coast of Brazil and consequently abundant rainfall levels
The environmental conditions that allowed Mexico City to become one of Latin America’s major metropolitan areas have also contributed to the city’s pollution problem. Which of the following is not a characteristic of these pollution-causing environmental factors?
Increased air pollution trapped in the valley has caused the air to warm considerably, causing the snow to melt faster.
Humans transformed the Latin American landscape in numerous ways. What is one way that humans have reshaped the Latin American landscape?
Desert waters have been diverted for centuries to the region’s major population centers.
Which of the following countries does not show any indication of deforestation?
Argentina
Which of the following cities would be considered a primate city?
Buenos Aires
Which of the following would not be an example of an emerging Latin American megalopolis?
Caracas – Maracay – Valencia
Which of the following statements is true regarding the Andes Mountains?
Lake Titicaca, one of the high-altitude lakes found in the Andes, is on the border of Peru and Bolivia.
Greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America are lower than those in most of the developing world. What is the most accurate statement that explains this outcome?
Latin America has lower-than-average energy consumption.
There are three main river basins in Latin America: the Amazon, the Plata, and the Orinoco. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the basins and their rivers?
The Amazon River is the largest river system in the world by volume and the second in length.
Which of the following areas of the Latin American City Model (extending out from the city center) best represents class divisions?
CBD – Elite residential sector – Zone of Maturity – Zone of in situ accretion – Zone of peripheral squatter settlements
Climate change is already affecting Latin America. Which of the following is a major effect of global warming in Latin America?
The higher levels of carbon dioxide associated with global warming are drying the Amazon rainforests, thereby reducing its ability to absorb carbon.
What climate region dominates most of the central portion of South America?
Tropical
Which of the following is the largest major river in the Latin America region by discharge?
The Amazon River
Deforestation is the environmental issue most commonly associated with Latin America. Which of the following factors related to deforestation in Latin America is most correct?
In the Brazilian Amazon, deforestation is caused by a variety of factors, including expansion of industrial mining and logging, the growth in corporate farms, and continued population growth.
What explains the basic topography of Latin America?
The movement of tectonic plates
Where are the Andes Mountains located?
along the west coast of South America
What is the range of elevation above sea level in the Amazon Basin?
0-200 meters
Where does the Amazon River system start? In other words, where are the headwaters or sources of the Amazon River system located?
in the Andes Mountains
Thinking Spatially and Data Analysis – Latin America – Physical Geography and Climate Part E
-There are many tributaries to the Amazon River
-Like North America, South America’s highest elevations are in the west, with lower elevations toward the east
-The rivers in the Amazon system begin in the Andes Mountains and flow into the Atlantic Ocean
What is the general pattern of wind in the Amazon Basin region?
from east to west
What is the source of the moisture that feeds the rivers in the Amazon Basin?
the Atlantic Ocean
What climate type is most common on the west coast of South America, to the west of the Andes Mountains?
B – dry
Thinking Spatially and Data Analysis – Latin America – Physical Geography and Climate Part I
-Through much of Latin America, there is little seasonality in the temperatures
-Orographic precipitation plays a role in the high rainfall and plentiful rivers of the Amazon Basin
-Latitude plays a role in the climates of Latin America
What percentage of the world’s known species live in the Amazon Rainforest?
one-tenth of the world’s known species
Currently, what two groups are primarily responsible for cutting down large sections of the tropical rainforest?
Brazil’s ranchers and commercial farmers are primarily responsible for cutting down large sections of the tropical rainforest.
How does Brazil’s environmental protection agency protect 4 million square kilometers of tropical rainforest with only six helicopters and 600 officers?
Brazil’s environmental protection agency uses satellite monitoring technology to detect deforestation.
What percentage of the Amazon Rainforest is still standing?
Eighty percent of the Amazon Rainforest is still standing.
What is the overall population density of the Amazon Basin?
fewer than 6 people per square kilometer
In which of these areas is a large proportion of the population of Latin America located?
in the coastal regions
Which of these groups of cities is an emerging megalopolis in Latin America?
Rio de Janeiro – Santos – São Paulo in Brazil
Thinking Spatially and Data Analysis – Latin America – Population and Development Part E
-The population of Latin America is unevenly distributed.
-There are more metropolitan areas with 1-5 million people than there are metropolitan areas with 10 million people or more.
-Central America is more densely settled than South America.
Which of these countries has the largest population in Latin America?
Brazil
How many countries of Latin America have a total fertility rate that is below replacement level?
4
Which Latin American country has the highest rate of net migration?
Costa Rica
Which Latin American country has the highest level of gender inequality?
Guatemala
How many Latin American countries saw an improvement in their under-age-5 mortality rate between 1990 and 2011?
all of them
Thinking Spatially and Data Analysis – Latin America – Population and Development Part K
-In most countries of Latin America, adult literacy is slightly higher in males than females.
-In general, countries with a higher total fertility rate also tend to have a higher rate of natural increase and a higher percentage of their populations under the age of 15.
-There are growing opportunities for women in government in Latin America.
Which of these countries does not possess a large number of indigenous language speakers?
Uruguay
If you were traveling in La Paz, which of these languages would you most likely hear spoken?
Spanish and Aymara
What is the predominant language spoken in Brazil?
Portuguese
What it the correlation between the location of Brazil’s indigenous-language speakers and Brazil’s physical geography?
Native speakers tend to be concentrated throughout the Amazon Basin and in highlands.
Which of these is the least likely explanation for this settlement pattern of indigenous-language speakers?
It reflects the location of cooler climates that are more favorable for indigenous settlement.
In which of these cities would you most likely find African as a dominant ethnic group?
Fortaleza
Which of these do you think is the most likely reason why Africans would be found in this city?
They are descendants of African slaves who were brought to serve as workers on plantations during the colonial period.
Which of the following best characterizes the physical environment of Tijuana, Mexico?
Hot, dry desert
Why has Tijuana grown to be one of the largest and fastest growing cities in Mexico?
Rapid growth of maquiladoras
What are maquiladoras?
Foreign-owned factories located in Mexico in order to take advantage of cheaper Mexican labor
How has the rapid growth of Tijuana caused problems for residents?
Basic services such as sewage treatment and waste disposal have not been able to keep up with the rapid growth.
How do most houses in Tijuana get clean water?
Water is delivered to houses by tanker trucks.
In Mexico the poorest states tend to lie ________________.
south of Mexico City
In Brazil the poorest states tend to lie _________________.
in the northeast
On which of these physical features are industrial diamonds mined?
Guiana Shield
Where in Mexico, aside from the vicinity of Mexico City, are industrial regions found?
along the border with the United States
Which of these is the most likely explanation for the concentration of industrial facilities in this region?
They include many assembly plants that trade principally with the United States.
Which of these countries is the least reliant on remittances from immigrants?
Uruguay