World Geography: North America

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Cultural Pluralism
Cultural Diversity
How is America and Canada population increasing?
America’s realm is due to natural increase and immigration. Canada is affected more by immigration.
Physiographic regions (province)
A region within which there prevails substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils.
High-relief regions
Pacific mountains, Rocky mountains, Appalachian mountains.
Low-relief regions
Great plains, interior lowlands, various coastal plains.
Rain shadow effect
The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross the highlands.
Central business district (CBD)
The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest building.
What are two great drainage systems of the Rockies and Appalachians?
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River into the northern Atlantic. Also the Mississippi-Missouri rivers into a delta on the Gulf of mexico.
What are good to do in lowlands?
Farming and settlement.
Language?
Near-universality of English. This is the dominate medium of interaction.
Religion?
Christian dominate. We has religious tolerance and diversity.
Internal political geographies?
It’s dominated by straight-line boundaries. Some places are by physical features mark boundaries (Iowa with the Mississippi and Missouri).
Federal State structure?
Each countries subdivision vary in their significance.
Fossils Fuels
Oil, natural gas, and coal.
Urban system
Cities specialized in raw materials or manufacturing.
American Manufacturing Belt
North Americas near-rectangular core region, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, saint Louis, and Baltimore.
Outer City
This is suburban America. Residential had its own businesses and industries, entertainment, and other amenities. This declined in the central city.
Deindustrialization
Loss of manufacturing jobs meant opportunities were found in suburbia. Those who could moved out of the inner city.
Gentrification
Involves land use changes and urban neighborhood restoration. Raises property taxes and values. Displaces former low-income residents with newer, more affluent ones.
2008 Financial crisis
Banking sector’s “toxic assets” a result of predatory mortgage lending and irresponsible borrowing. This ruined the housing market. Foreclosures sky-rocketed. Canada was less severe: conservative banking and strong economy.
Sunbelt
The popular name given to the southern tier of the U.S., which is anchored by the mega-States of California, Texas, and Florida. It’s warmer climate, superior recreational opportunities, and other amenities have been attracting large numbers of relocating people and activities since the 1960’s; broader definitions of the Sunbelt also include much of the western U.S., even Colorado and coastal Pacific Northwest.
Major Migrations
Urbanization, Rural to urban movement of African Americans, Suburbanization and beyond, Return of African Americans to southern cities, Steady influx of global immigration.
Migration
Permanent relocation. Migration decision depends on perception, information, and distance.
Melting Pot
Blended cultures being contested by increasing ethnic and cultural complexity.
Mosaic Culture
More heterogeneous complex of separate, distinct groups. They live together, but do not intertwine with another.
Immigration Benefits
It is part of the region’s history and has never been heartily welcomed. It fuels economic growth. It is not just unskilled, but also skilled and educated. Native population is aging, and immigration brings youth. Illegal immigration should be curbed.
Limit Immigration Now
High level of legal immigrants is unsustainable. Demands for social services strain state budget. Immigrants displace working class Americans by accepting lower wages. Amnesty for illegal immigrants attracts more, and that’s a security issue.
Canada is divided into 13 provinces.
4 Atlantic Provinces, 3 central Prairie Province, 3 Arctic North territories, 2 core Hudson Provinces, 1 Pacific Ocean Province
How is Canada divided by culture and tradition?
English vs French.
Cross-boarder linkage
Between southern Canadian provinces and the US.
Devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
Secession
Withdrawal for political independence, has not happened in U.S. since the Civil War.
African Americans
Forced migration as slaves into Southeast plantations. Moved from and then back to Southeast.
Hispanic Americans
Legacy of Southwest as Mexican territory. Concentrated in the Southwest, but growing elsewhere.
Asian Americans
Growing and diverse minority that is more territoriality clustered than other groups. Mostly found along Pacific Rim.
North American Core
Contains largest cities, each country’s capital, economic and media centers, hubs of research and education, and major transportation systems. Contains more than 1/3 of each country’s population.
Megalpolis
When spelled with lower-case m, a synonym for conurbation, one of the large coalescing supercities forming in diverse parts of the world. When capitalized, refers specifically to the multimetropolitan corridor that extends along the northeastern U.S. Seaboard from north of Boston to south of Washington D.C.
Maritime Northeast
Primary industries endure alongside growing recreation and tourism. Significant offshore oil.
Francophone Canada
Quebec and Acadians in New Brunswick. Wealth from hydroelectricity. Quebec’s uncertainty with nationalist efforts. Acadians’ acceptance of multiculturalism.
Southeast
Sunbelt migration hit some cities and agricultural areas, missed others. Hurricanes and gulf oil spill. Internationalization of Southern Florida.
Southwest
Aridity and ethnic diversity. Growing technopoles. Concerns over water supply limiting dependency of fossil fuels. Substantial Mexican Pop. Dangers of racial profiling.
Pacific Hinge
Entire West coast. Contains the Pacific Rim. Growth of seaport traffic. The Pacific Hinge represents the interface between the North America realm and Pacific Rim. Economic dynamism, high technology, and industry.
Technopoles
High-technology industrial complexes, and transnational trading via NAFTA.
Racial Profiling
State laws aiming to deal with illegal immigration (ex: Arizona)
Pacific Rim
A discontinuous region along the Pacific experiencing rapid growth and progress.
Western Frontier
Remote, dry, and sparsely populated. Fastest growing region: pull factor… sunny climate, open spaces, lower cost of living, and growing job opportunities. Las Vegas Baby!
Continental Interior
Dominated by agriculture: breadbasket and meat belt. Corn for feed, now in need as ethanol. Losing population of youth and affluent. Region has weathered the recession of low unemployment and strong income.
Northern Frontier
Includes 90% of Canada, plus Alaska. Vast mineral resources, hydro-power, oil reserves, vast tar sands of oil mixed with sand in Alberta. Environmental future: reserves of oil and natural gas yet tapped. Demands for preservation. climate change and decline of Arctic ocean ice cap. logging moratorium in part of Canada’s boreal forests.
First Nations
Indigenous groups in Canada AND America (Native Americans).
Main Street
In Canada, the urban axis from Windsor to Quebec.
Primary Economic activity
Activities engaged in the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture.
Secondary Economic Activity
Activities that process raw materials and transform them into finished industrial products; the manufacturing belt.
Tertiary Economic Activity
Activities that engage in services-such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.