Europe & Russia Physical Geography

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Previous Vocabulary
lake, gulf, sea, ocean, continent, strait
Largest landmass in the world, made up of Europe and Asia
Sizes of Europe and Russia
Europe: second smallest continent, made up of 44 countries
Russia: world’s largest country, roughly twice the size of USA
Hemispheres of Europe and Russia
Northern, Eastern
Number of people living in an area
population density
Average number of people in 1 square mile
Population densities of Europe & Russia
Europe – high
Russia – low
Land surrounded by water on three sides
Water that extends into the land
Body of water where ships can seek shelter and dock
Significance of Europe’s bays and harbors
Allows western European countries to be the world leaders in shipping
Major Land Regions of Europe
Northwestern Highlands, North European Plains, Central Uplands, Alpine Mountain Systems
Major Land Regions of Russia
North European Plains, Ural Mountains, West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau, East Siberian Uplands
Northwestern Highlands
-Land region of Europe
– Located in far north of Europe
– Oldest mountains in Europe
– Low population
– Large forests (allows for good lumber industry)
North European Plains
– Land region of Europe and western Russia
– Covers more than half of Europe (from France to Russia)
– Location of Europe’s and Russia’s largest cities
– Productive farmland in Europe
– Location of most industry in Russia
– Most of Russia’s population lives on N. European Plain (in western Russia)
Central Uplands
– Land region of Europe
– Region of highlands and rocky terrain
– Bad farming
– Industry includes mining, tourism
Alpine Mountain System
– Land region of Europe
– Stretches from France to Balkan Peninsula
– Some farming
– Includes the Alps, the highest mountains in Europe
Ural Mountains
– Land region of Russia
– Creates border between Europe and Asia
– West of Asian part of Russia
– East of the North European Plains
– Asian part of Russia
– Includes 75% of Russia
– East of Europe and Ural Mountains
– Harsh climate
– Low population
– Includes land regions of West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau, East Siberian Uplands
West Siberian Plain
– Located in Siberia
– Low, marshy plain
– Covers more than 1 million square miles
– Very low elevation
Central Siberian Plateau
– Located in Siberia
– East of West Siberian Plain
– Slopes upward from Plain
East Siberian Uplands
– Located in Siberia
– Region of rugged mountains and plateaus
– Includes 20+ active volcanoes
body of water that is navigable
body of water that is clear enough for ships to travel through
Major Rivers of Europe & Russia
Rhine, Danube, Volga
Rhine River
– Source: Alps in Switzerland (melting glacier)
– Runs from Switzerland to Netherlands
– Connects to western Europe through tributaries and canals
– Mouth: North Sea
Man-made waterway created to allow ships to travel quicker, more conveniently
Danube River
– Source: Black Forest in western Germany
– 2nd longest river in Europe / Russia
– Mouth: Black Sea
Volga River
– Source: Valdai Hills (northwest of Moscow)
– Largest river in Russia; 2,291 miles long
– Freezes during winter
– Mouth: Caspian Sea
Major Lakes of Europe & Russia
Baikal, Geneva
Lake Baikal
– Located in eastern Siberia
– World’s deepest lake (30 ft wide, 400 miles long)
– Large freshwater lake
– Lots of animal and plant life
Lake Geneva
– Located between France and Switzerland
– French side: spa town, resort
– Swiss side: city of Geneva (important diplomatic city)
Bay of Biscay
– Gulf of northeast Atlantic
– Located along northern cost of Spain and western coast of France
– Known for rough seas, violent storms, shipwrecks
– Named after Spanish province of Biscay
Narrow waterway joining two larger areas of water; wider than a strait
English Channel
– Separates southern England and northern France
– Joins North Sea to Atlantic Ocean
Major Seas of Europe and Russia
North Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea
North Sea
– Part of Atlantic Ocean
– Borders northern Europe (east – Norway, Denmark; west – Scotland, England; south – Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France)
– Busiest body of water in the world, along with English Channel
Baltic Sea
– Located in northern Europe – between Finland, Russia, Poland, Germany, Baltic countries
– Connected to North Sea by Kiel Canal
– Connected to Atlantic thru strairs of Denmark
– Low salt content, so northern parts freeze in winter
– Many rivers empty into Baltic
Black Sea
– Bordered by Turkey, Ukraine, Romania, Russia
– Almost landlocked
– Connected to Atlantic via Mediterranean and Aegean Seas
– Formerly a freshwater lake (now salt-water; less salt than Atlantic)
– Connected to many rivers like Danube River
Completely surrounded by land
Mediterranean Sea
– Borders 3 continents (Africa, Asia, Europe)
– Connected to Atlantic via Strait of Gibraltar
– Location of some of most ancient human civilizations, like Rome, Athens
State of human society with developed forms of government, culture, industry, etc.
State made up of governing city and its territories
Categories: Geography