AP Human Geography

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a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
language family
large groups of languages having similar roots
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousands of years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language familes
a person who speaks more than one language
the limits of areal extent of particular words
linguistic refugee area
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable enviornmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
shatter belt
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
knowing only one language
the name by which a geographical place is known
generic toponym
a common name
official language
a governmentally designated language of instruction and other official public and private communication
standard language
a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
pictures that symbolize ideas
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
language convergence
languages form together into one
language replacement
Replacing a language
conquest theory
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
agriculture theory
with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, gave rise to three language families: Indo-European, Arabic Languages, and mid-eastern languages
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
reverse reconstruction
where you trace a language back into time, seeing how it diffused through space and time
Categories: Human Geography