AP Human Geography: Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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Cultural ecology definition
A culture’s adaptation to environment
Cultural ecology example
Why humans alter environment
Political ecology definition
Environmental consequences of political- economic arrangements
Political ecology example
Big businesses cutting trees for cities space
Environmental determinism definition
The theory that human actions are affected by physical environment
Environmental determinism example
Greece was the ideal climate
Distance decay definition
Outcome of distance on interactions of cultures
Distance decay example
Distance from a hearth
Absolute location definition
Exact location of a place
Absolute location example
Latitude and longitude coordinates
Relative location definition
Using features to describe a place
Relative location example
Hersey is across the street from target
reference map definition
Shows geographic features and locations
Reference map example
Map of earth
Mental map definition
Maps in your mind about places you have seen, heard about, or been to
Mental map example
Thinking about what it was like in Italy
GPS or Global positioning system definition
Locates places on earth’s surface
GPS example
Car navigation system
Sense of place definition
Adds emotional feeling to a place
Sense of place example
Bias towards ones hometown
Spatial distribution definition
Arrangement of things across the earth
Spatial distribution example
Map of cell towers in a state
Spatial perspective definition
Where things happen in the world
Spatial perspective example
Map of cholera outbreaks around the world
Spatial interaction definition
Depends on distances, accesibility, and connectivity
Spatial interaction example
The transportation of food exports from country to country
Cultural landscape definition
Human activity that impacts the world that is not there naturally/anything made by humans
Cultural landscape example
Buildings, roads, restaurants
Pandemic definition
An outbreak of a world wide disease
Pandemic example
Cholera pandemic in 1816
Epidemic example
Cholera epidemic in 1990
Epidemic definition
Outbreak of disease in region
Fieldwork definition
Research, interviewing, polling, etc. done in the environment of what is being researched instead of in an office or lab
Fieldwork example
An archaeologist studying the skeleton of a dinosaur, digging up dinosaur bones
Isotherm Definition
Lines connecting points of equal temperature values
Isotherm example
Places in the world with equal climates
Possibilism definition
Natural environment only limits the development of a culture
Possibilism example
The Mayans having a successful culture in a tropical climate.
Sequent occupance definition
Cultural impacts in a certain place
Sequent occupance example
Humans bringing technology when they move
Connectivity definition
Connections between places
Connectivity example
People from two different places being friends
Perception of place definition
Thoughts about places people have that they havent been to
Perception of place example
People from Illinois having bad perceptions about the West Coast
Human geography definition
The study of how people around the world live, communicate, and organize themselves and their land
Human geography example
Language,Government, orders, and studying different cultures
Physical geography definition
The study of the natural geographical features and physical phenomena
Physical geography example
Mountains, lakes, rivers
Five themes of geography:location example
Shed aquarium is in Chicago Illinois
Five themes of geography : Human/environment interaction example
Cars creating pollution
Five themes of geography : region example
Illinois is in the Midwest region of the United States
Five themes of geography :place example
Aruba is warm; Antarctica is cold
Five themes of geography :movement example
Cars trains buses in big cities
Globalization definition
Actions that encourage communication from people all over the world, creating relationships, and connecting people from different countries
Globalization example
Global financial markets, social media, and popular culture are some examples of globalization
Stimulus diffusion definition
Ideas that affect a local community/impractical for everyone
Stimulus diffusion example
Veggie burger in India
Relocation diffusion definition
Movement of people who adopted an idea and bring it with them to spread it
Relocation diffusion example
Migration
G I S/geographic information system definition
Digital accounts of the environment
Thematic map definition
Tells a story of a movement of a geographic phenomena
Thematic map example
Map of tornadoes in the Midwest
GIS example
show voters parties and the computer will tally it
Activity space definition
Routine places we go
Activity space example
Dunkin’ Donuts down the street
Remote-sensing definition
Monitoring earth from far away
Remote-sensing example
Satellites an aircraft
Formal region definition
Have similar cultural/physical qualities
Formal region example
French/ spoken in france, parts of canada, and colonies in africa
Functional region definition
Specific interaction/activities
Functional region example
Shared political, social, economic purpose/urban area with people moving in and out
Perceptual region definition
Regions constructed to understand the nature/distribution of human geography phenomena
Perceptual region example
Perceptions of the South
Cultural trait definition
Single part of a culture
Cultural trait example
Turban in a Muslim society
Cultural complex definition
Combination of traits in a culture
Cultural complex example
Cattle/many uses around the world
Cultural hearth definition
An area where cultural traits are invented and diffused
Cultural hearth example
Islam founded in 500 CE around Mecca and Medina
Cultural barriers definition
Rules of what is not acceptable in a culture
Cultural barrier example
Prohibition of alcohol
Contagious diffusion definition
Expansion diffusion in which nearly all people are affected near the place
Contagious diffusion example
Cholera
Hierarchical diffusion definition
Spreads to places that are most likely to adopt it
Hierarchical diffusion example
Crocs
Categories: Human Geography