AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocab

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Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency Ration
The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The aver number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
age distribution
The proportion of individuals of different ages within a population. You can use an age distribution to estimat survival by calculating the difference in proportion of individuals in succeeding age classes.
Cairo Conference
November 22-26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia
carrying capacity
the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment.
child mortality rate
number of children who die by the age of five, per thousand live births per year.
contraception
birth control, prevent pregnancy
demographic equation
original population, add births, subtract deaths, add immigrants, subtract emigrants
J-curve
A type of diagram where the curve falls at the outset and eventually rises to a point higher than the starting point, suggesting the letter J.
Malthus, Thomas
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food populatio
natalism (pro- and anti-)
anti=A country that is against births and enforces this through various methods. pro=For birth. Country has policies to increase birth rate.
neomalthusians
refers primarily to ideas derived from the political/economic thought of the Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, as laid out initially in his 1798 writings, An Essay on the Principle of Population, which describes how unchecked population growth is exponential (1→2→4→8) while the growth of the food supply was expected to be arithmetical (1→2→3→4).
population agglomerations
When populations cluster around cities and have suburbs and cities and such
replacement fertility
…term commonly used by demographers when referring to levels of childbearing, normally presented as being around 2.1 children per woman
S-curve
sigmoid function, a mathematical function that produces a sigmoid, or “S”-shaped, curve.
Categories: Human Geography