AP Human Geography | Chapter 3 Vocabulary

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Remittances
Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
Cyclic Movements
Movement – for example, nomadic migration – that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
Periodic Movement
For example, college attendance or military service – that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
Migration
A change in residence intended to be permanent.
Activity Spaces
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Nomadism
Movement among a definite set of places
Migrant Labor
A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
Transhumance
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
Military Service
Another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
International Migration
Human movement involving movement across international boundaries.
Immigration
The act of a person migrating into a particular country or era.
Internal Migration
Human movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States.
Forced Migration
Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
Voluntary Migration
Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move.
Laws of Migration
Developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.
Gravity Model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.
Push Factors
Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
Pull Factors
Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.
Distance Decay
The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Deportation
The act of the government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrants home country.
Kinship Links
Types of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant’s decision to go where family or friends have already found success.
Chain Migration
A pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there)
Immigration Wave
Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
Global Scale Migratiom
Migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions.
Explorers
A person examining a region that is unknown to them.
Colonization
A physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
Regional Scale
Interactions occurring within a region, in a regional setting.
Islands of Development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure..
Russification
The Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union.
Guest Workers
Legal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term.
Refugees
People who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country.
Internally Displaced Persons
People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee.
Asylum
Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state.
Repatriation
A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization.
Genocide
Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial, or religious group.
Immigration Laws
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
Quotas
Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year.
Selective Immigration
Process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating.
Categories: Human Geography