Ap Human Geography Chapter 7

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Apartheid.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

A apartheid promoted segregation.

Balkanization.
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.

The Ottoman Empire went through the process of Balkanization.

Balkanized.
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

Israel is a good example of being Balkanized.

Blockbusting.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.

Blockbusting happened in the 1960s and 1970s in America.

Centripetal force.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.

A good example of Centripetal force happened after 9/11 in America.

Ethnic cleansing.
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.

Ethnic cleansing was displayed in Rwanda over the summer reading.

Ethnicity.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Judaism is a good example of an ethnicity.

Multi-ethnic state.
State that contains more than one ethnicity.

Rwanda is also a good example a multi-ethnic state.

Multinational state.
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Russia is a good example of a multinational state.

Nationalism.
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Nationalism was also displayed after 9/11 in America.

Nationality.
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

Like if you Lived in Cuba your nationality would most likely be Cuban.

Nation-state.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Estonia is a good example of a Nation-state.

Race.
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.

There are many races in places like the United States.

Racism.
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Racism is no as common as it used to be in America

Racist.
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.

Racists were very common in Germany during World War II

Self-determination.
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.

Many independent ethnicites believe in self-determination.

Sharecropper.
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Sharecroppers are usually poor.

Triangular slave trade.
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.

The Triangular slave trade died out after the civil war.

Categories: Human Geography