AP Human Geography Final Exam Review

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What do LDC and MDC stand for?
Less developed countries and more developed countries
GIS
Geographic Information System, a computer system that can capture, store, and analyze and display geographic data….
Remote sensing
A acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from another long distance
GPS
Global Positioning System…
toponym
name given to a place on Earth, may indicate the origin of whoever settled that place
site
physical characters of a place. Have always been essential for selecting a location for settlements.
situation
location of a place relative to other places
International dateline
follows 180 degrees longitude, its the point where days are literally separated, if you traveling to China you will set your clocks back 24 hours.
latitude
equator of latitude, horizontal bands around the earth measured in degrees…
longitude
vertical strips that separate the earth in degrees
prime meridian
0 degrees longitude, goes through London
scale
the relationship of a feature size on a map to the actual size
projection
the scientific method of transforming locations from the surface to a flat map
cartography
science of mapmaking
regions
cultural landscapes and combination of cultural features such as language and religion
cultural ecology
the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
culture
made up of behavior patters (what people do), understandings (what people believe in), adaptation (how people live efficiently), social systems (school, churches, religion, government)
distribution
an arrangement of a feature in space…
density
How many people live in a given land scape (# of people divided by land area)
agricultural density
# of farmers per unit area of farmland
arithmetic density
total # of objects in an area
Diffusion
a characteristic that spreads across space from one place to another over time
hearth
place from which innovation originates
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through the movement of people from one place to another
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing effect
contagious diffusion
the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend through a population
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
distance decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of phenomenon from its origin
environmental determination
a 19th and early 20th approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers be found in the physical sciences (physics/biology/chemistry). Geography was then the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
equator
the horizontal band that separates the northern hemisphere from the southern hemisphere-0 degrees latitude
formal region
an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
an area organized around a focal point….
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or known authority or power to others persons or places
mercator projection
a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder
possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but humans can adapt and can choose a course of action from many alternatives.
robinson projection
A map in which the lines of latitude and longitude almost intersect a right angles except near the edges; shows areas and distances with a high degree of accuracy
space
the physical gap or interval between two objects
space-time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distance place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
spacial analysis
arrangements of points, lines, areas or surfaces on a map
stimulus diffusion
a spread of an underlying principal even though a specific characteristic is rejected
time zones
24 global that divide time into one hour blocks
uneven development
the increasing gap in an economic condition between poor and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
vernacular region
an area that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
geography
the study of the earth’s surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.
human geography
focuses on how people make places, organize space and society, interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region and world
spatial perspective
Outlook through which geographers identify, explain, and predict the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of different spaces.
The five geographical themes are?
location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region
What are the differences between globalization and neolocalization?
globalization are actions and processes that involve the entire world in their production, neolocalization is the return of the emphasis of the production of goods in a specific location…globalization-Coca Cola or Walmart or McDonalds, or even buying a diamond ring…Neolocation would be a small local business, buying fruits and vegetables produced in a local garden, or anything involving something local
How do geographers classify distributions?
based on 3 main properties – density, concentration, and pattern.
How do geographers classify locations?
Longitude and Latitude, physical features….
How do geographers classify regions?
physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of Humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
How does induction play a role in mapmaking?
the mapcontains more information than was in the original data. Such maps are only approximations of
reality.
How does symbolization play a role in mapmaking?
legend or key that explains the
meaning of each type of symbol used on a map. denote spatial and quantitative variation on a map
How does simplication play a role in mapmaking?
reduce details. What is emphasized and what is omitted is another dimension of the simplification
process. In this process a map can be manipulated to create a false impression. Mapmakers can
show only the information they want to convey and omit the things they want to obscure.
How does categorization play a role in mapmaking?
Grouping of related maps together a common theme…
Types of scales and projections used in mapmaking…
Types of scale would be fractional scale (shows the numeric ration of distances on map), written scale (describes the relationship of distance in words), and graphic scale (consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth’s surface) types of projection are mercator projection, robinson projection. Mercator projection would be used when when you want to preserve the angles and shapes of the map, but not size, very little distortion and is rectangular. Robinson projection shows space across oceans but makes land forms seem smaller
List different types of diffusion and provide examples and an illustration of each in the real world….
relocation diffusion-That South America primarily speaks Spanish because colonizers brought their language from Spain. hierarchical diffusion-hip hop rap music. contagious diffusion-disease such as influenza/AIDS, ideas on the internet. Stimulus diffusion-Apple and IBM would be examples, use of the internet, use of cellphones
dot distribution
Type of map that uses dots to represent a given value of a characteristic in order to show its distribution and concentration
chloropleth
a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map
isoline thematic
use line symbols to portray a continous distribution such as temperature or elevation. Isolines are lines that connect points of equal numeric value.
cartogram
areas on the cartogram are intentionally drawn larger or smaller in proportion to the phenomenon being shown. A cartogram of world population, for example, might show countries as being either larger or smaller in proportion to their populations.
What is the difference between “Demography” and “Population Geography”
Demography is the scientific study of population characteristics while population geography is concerned with the study of demographic processes which affect the environment, but differs from demography in that it is concerned with the spatial expression of such processes
Why do geographers study population?
To describe the distribution of people in comparison to resources…to figure out how and why people act the way they do and how they use the Earth to sustain themselves….
What are the four regions where 2/3 of the world’s population live?
Southeast Asia, East Asia, Western Europe, South Asia
What are the similarities of these four regions?
Most of these people live near an ocean or river, fertile soil, and temperate climate, all in the northern hemisphere….
Name 4 countries in each of the four major population regions…
South East-India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan/ East Asia-China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea/ Southeast Asia-The Phillipines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand/Western Europe-United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, and France
What is an “Ecumene?”
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Name reasons why few people live in other regions of the world?
Harsher climate, lack of natural resources, no access to a major waterway, infertile land….
What is the difference between arithmetic density and physiological density?
The number of people supported by a unit area of arable land is physiological density while arithmetic density is just total people in total area, so the difference is in regard to land that can be farmed…
Why wold Germany have a higher crude death rate than that of Mexico?
Germany doesn’t have anywhere near as high of a birth rate as Mexico, so per 1000 people alive, they have relatively more deaths…
How do you get the Natural Increase rate of a country?
Computed by subtracting Crude Birth Rate from Crude Death
What does “Doubling Time” mean?
The number of years needed to double a population
What regions are experiencing a natural increase rate of 2.0 today?
Africa, Some parts of South America, Saudi Peninsula (Middle East), Some parts of Southeast Asia,
How do you determine the total fertility rate?
Number of children a woman will have in her child bearing years…
How do you determine infant mortality rate?
Annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with total live births…
What does the Infant Mortality rate reflect as far as countries go?
Reflect a country’s healthcare system…
What is the demographic transitional model and why is it so important?
It is a process of change in a society’s population. 5 stage diagram you have a drawing of….Important because it shows how a country’s population is growing…reflect their cultures beliefs and technology…
What was the agricultural revolution? Why was it so important?
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals. Did not have to totally rely on hunting and gathering, coincided with a burst in population…
The two most important stages of the Demographic transition model are…
Stage 2 and 3 because they are reflective of huge changes in total population while also showing how growth shifts first a high birth rate and lowering death rate, and then in stage 3 a decreasing birth rate with a more constant death rate..
Zero population growth means what?
Where the natural increase rate approaches zero, or where death rate equals the birth rate…
Why should you worry about the “Dependency Ratio?”
If the dependency ratio gets too high, there are not enough people to work or learn because all of the most productive parts of the population are dying off…
Why is the sex ratio a concern in certain countries like China?
The sex ratio can become a concern where are more women than men in society…when there are more women than men, more children are born, in China, this is a problem because there are already way too many children…
How does immigration affect the dependency ratio? Immigration affect the sex ratio?
If there are a lot of younger people or older people relocating then the dependency ratio will increase, but if working age people are immigrating, then it will decrease…Generally speaking, it will bring more men, because men are more likely to immigrate…
Why are there more women than men in the more developed countries?
Because people live long and men generally die sooner than women in MDCs
Why is Cape Verde in stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model?
Because the Crude Birth Rate far exceeds the crude death rate and birth rate was continuing to increase while death rate decreased
Why is the Census the most important data source for geographers?
Because it literally tells how many people are present in a country
What is a population pyramid and why important?
A country’s population displayed by age and gender groups. Important because it shows the percentage of the total population in each age bracket and by gender…
Why is Chile a stage 3 country?
Chile is a stage 3 country because birth rate is dropping, although it still exceeds death rate
Why is Denmark a stage 4 country?
Because the birth rate is approaching death rate and total population is leveling off
Name two problems we may face regarding overpopulation…
Food supply will decrease….wars and civil violence will increase, lack of fuel, pollution, lack of farmland
What did Malthus predict in 1798?
Population was exceeding the amount of food supply….
What are two criticisms of Malthusian theory?
Unrealistic because they are based on belief that resources are fixed than expanding, technology can offset scarcity…
What two strategies have been useful in reducing birth rates?
economic development and birth control…
What does Africa have high crude death rates?
Disease and AIDS…malnutrition
What is epidemiological transition?
documents what causes death in each stage of the Demographic transition…
What happens in stage 1 and 2 in the epidemiological transition model?
Infectios disease and accidents are the primary reasons for death in a population…
What is a pandemic? Example?
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a large population…cholera…
What countries in the world have been most affected by AIDS?
African countries…and eastern Europe, as well as latin america
What have been the effects of overpopulation in Asia, Africa, and Latin America?
Resources have declined, disease has gone up, pollution has increased,
How often does the average family in the US move or migrate?
once every six years…
Why do Latin Americans migrate to the US every year?
Better job opportunites, more educational opportunities, less disease, better healthcare…
What is the difference between immigration and emigration?
emigration is migration from a location, immigration is migration to a location…
How do you determine net migration?
Difference between the number of people entering your country versus the number leaving…
What is mobility?
All types of movements from one place to another…
What is circulation? Give an example…
Circulation is a type of short term repetitive movement that reoccur on a regular basis, such as daily, monthly, or annually-going to school every day…
What is meant by changing scales?
Means that people can migrate easier…
What are pockets of local diversity?
migration of people with similar cultural values…19th century Europeans to the US to find jobs…
How has globalization influenced migration?
increased migration because people are needed to move around more…advertising…
What is the main reason people migrate?
economic reasons (jobs)
What is the difference between push and pull factors?
Push makes people move, pull makes people move to a new location…
What are three types of push and pull factors?
Economic-trying to find a new job/Environmental-natural disaster causes people to leave (push), pull would be people moving to a beautiful region like Colorado/Cultural-be involved in a new ethnic group or religion
What are intervening obstacles?
An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration…environmental-mountain political barrier-immigration restrictions on people…
What is migration transition?
the changes in a society comparable to that in the demographic transition model….
What are two characteristics of migrants?
Most are male, adult rather than families with children…
Why do young people migrate more than older people?
Usually are more mobile, more energetic, do not have firm roots in a place perhaps, and have less debt…
What is distance decay?
The older someone is the less likely they are move far…
Categories: Human Geography