AP Human Geography – Unit 1

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History of Geography
it’s roots date back to classical Greek concern with measuring and mapping. Erasothenes we the first to use this term
Cartography
the science or practice of drawing/making maps
Map Scales
refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground
ratio or fraction scale
shows numerical relationship between distances on the map and Earth’s surface using fractions
written scale
describes relationship between map and Earth distances in words
graphic scale
usually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth’s surface
large scale map
maps that cover small areas with greater detail
small scale map
maps that cover large areas with less detail
projection
the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map
Distortion
contorted in a way so it doesn’t appear it’s exact shape or form
Mercator projection
everything on this map is mostly straight, shape is distorted very little and direction is consistent and the map is rectangular; size grossly distorted toward the poles
Robinson projection
displays information across the ocean usefully; land areas are much smaller than on interrupted maps of same size
Longitude
meridians that run north to south usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Latitude
these lines run east to west, usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Remote sensing
the scanning of the Earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it
GPS
the system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth
GIS
a computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Site
the physical character of a place
Situation
the location of a place relative to other places
Region
an area of Earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristic
Formal/Uniform Region
an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristic; can be proven
Functional/Nodal Region
an area organized around a node or focal point
Vernacular/Perceptual Region
an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity; can’t be proven; sometime stereotypes about a certain area
Spatial Association
the degree to which things are similarly arranged over space; compares distribution patterns and different perspectives such as local, state, global, and national patterns
Globalization of Economy (Transnational Corporations)
think of the housing bubble; these corporations conduct research, operate factories, and sell products in many countries
Globalization of Culture
how McDonalds spread across the world; produce uniform “global” landscapes of material artifacts and of cultural values
Distribution
the way in which something is set up/arranged and spread in a certain study area
Density
the frequency with which something occurs in space
Concentration
can be clustered or dispersed
Land Ordinance of 1785
when they found a formal way to organize land such as in grid patterns or with longitude and latitude
Relocation diffusion
when something originates at a hearth and spreads through bodily movement
Expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature from one place another in an additive process
Hierarchial diffusion
the spread of an idea or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Contagious diffusion
the rapid, wide spreading of a characteristic throughout the population
Stimulus diffusion
the spread of one aspect of somtehing; the spread of an underlying principal
Distance decay
contact diminishes with increasing distance; the farther away someone is from another, the less likely the two are to interact
Space-time Compression
the reduction in time it takes for something to reach another place
Unequal access
when not everyone in every place has access to the same technology; developing world compared to the less developed world
Environmental determinism
belief that the physical environment caused social development
Possibilism
the belief that the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment
Carl Sauer
one of several geographers that adopted the cultural landscape approach
Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter
two scientists that believed in the environmental determinism approach
Cultural landscape
how a region derives its unified character; a combination of cultural features such a language and religion, economical features, and physical features such as climate and vegetation
Categories: Human Geography