AP Human Geography Unit 6 and 7 Terms

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Industrial Revolution
Social & economic change that began in England in the 1760s when the machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped.
Least Cost Theory
Alfred Weber’s theory of industrial location, explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors.
Secondary industries
Economic activities related to processing raw materials into finished products of great value.
Substitution principle
Asserts that an industry will choose to move to access lower labor costsdespite higher transportation costs.
Location Theory
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing area are interrelated.
Friction of distance
Based on the notion that the time and cost increase with increase in distance.
The basic physical organizational structure needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Clumping together of industries for mutual advantage.
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
Comparative advantage
Ability of a country(or place) to produce a good or offer a service better than another country can.
Growth role
An urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic develpment in its hinterland.
Special economic zone on Mexico’s northern border with the United States.
The North American Free Trade Agreement; creating free trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico; provides for the tariff-free movement of goods and products etc.
Special economic zone
Region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
The expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point that they become global in scale and impact.
A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor(includes the assembly-line).
Foreign direct investment
Investment by a multinational corporation in a foreign country’s economy.
High-technology corridors
Place were technology and computer industries agglomerate.
Manufacturing export zones
A feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes area with favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign operations.
New International division of labor
Division of the manufacturing process across serveral countries, wherein different pieces of the procuct are made in different countries, and then the pieces are assembled in yet another country.
Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-tech corridor is sometimes established.
Time-space compression
A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
Time-space convergence
A term coined by Donald Janelle that refers to the greatly accerlerated movement of goods, information, and ideas during the 20th century made possible by technological innovations in transportation and communications.
Core-periphery model
A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.
Core region
The centers of economic, political, and/or cultural power within a given territorial entity.
Dependency theory
Theory that exemplifies the structuralist perspective, arguing that the political and economic relations among countries limit the ability of less developed countries to modernize and develop.
Developed country
Countries that have a high level of development according to same criteria.
Developing country
A country that has often low standards of democratic governments, industrialization, social programs, and human rights guarantees for its citizens.
Progress of improving the materal condition of people through the growth and diffusion of technology and knowledge.
Gross National Product(GNP)
Value of total outputs of goods and services produced in a country; usually over one year.
Liberal model
Theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move.
Modernization Model
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of Walter Rostow. The modernization model maintains that all countries go through 5 interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
Post-colonial critics of developed countries’ involvement in the developing world.
Peripheral region
The least powerful regions and therefore, are often marginalized or under the control of both semi-peripherial regions and core.
Semi-periphery regions
Intermediary regions in terms of the hierarchy of power between core and periphery regions.
Structuralist model
Argue that less-develped countries are locked into a vicious cycle of entrenched underdevelopment by the global economic system that supports an unequal structure.
World Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein, who proposed that social change in the change in the developing world is in extricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
“HIgh point of the city”; the upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.
Market(originated form Greek)
Egalitarian city
Societies with no social classes and no government.
Feudal city
Political-geographical system in Europe during the Middle Ages when land was owned by the nobility and was worked by peasants and serfs(church was the center in this city).
Fork-preliterate city
City with the wall surrounding the land(defensive).
Formative era
The developing period of urbanization.
Urban banana
A cresent-shaped zone of early urbanization extending across Eurasia form England to Japan
Urban elite
Group of decision makers and organizers.
Preindustrial city
Has a government and more focus on the government, religion and trade.
Basic sector
Group of economic functions that bring money into an urban place and represent the city’s primary functions.
Tactic that contributed to ghettoization; used by real estate agents to get people to move out of their homes because of fear of racial integration.
Central Business District(CBD)
Original core of a city’s economy.
Central city
Urban center that provides services to people living in the surrounding rural areas.
The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities; a city’s “reach” into the surrounding region.
Central Place Theory
Walter Christaller explained how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
Economic Base
Developed by Robert Murray Haig that the economic activities are divided into two basic & nonbasic.
Economic reach
The maximum distance people can be form a central place and still be attracted to it for business purposes.
Edge cities
Self-sufficient urban area within a greater metropolitan complex; often developed on highway exits.
Functional specialization
The production of particular goods or services as a dominant activity in a particular location.
Gated communities
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, fenced in area where entry is limited to residents and their guests.
Area serviced by a central place.
Massive, urban “blob” of overlapping, integrating metropolitan area whose distinctive boundaries are becoming difficult to find.
Multiplier effect
Expansion of economic activity caused by the grow in or introduction of another economic activity.
Nonbasic sector
Group of economic functions in a city that swift money within the city, not outside the city as in the basic employment sector.
Racial steering
Contributing to ghettoization; real estate agents would show people neighborhoods and houses according to their race.
Rank-size rule
In a region, the nth-largest city’s population is 1/n the population of the reigion’s largest city.
Practing of banks and lending agencies refusing to give loans to people moving to minority-dominated districts.
The internal physical attributes of a place, including its local spatial character and physical setting.
The external locational attributes of a place.
A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city.
Urban geography
A subfield of geography that focuses especially on urban places, their characteristics, processes of genesis and growth, system, location and interrelationships.
Urban hierarchy
A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions. Hamlet-village-town-city-metropolis.
Urban realm
A spatial generalization of the large, late-20th century city in U.S.
Cities in the southern region have grown faster than northeast & mId-west due to the internal migration.
Categories: Human Geography