AP Human Geography Units 2 & 3 Vocabulary

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Carrying Capacity
The maximum number of inhabitants of which can be supported in a given area.
Cohort
A group of people who experience a significant event or is involved in one.
Demographic Regions
Any defined area or unit of the surface of the earth that you wish to analyze demographically and spatially.
Demography Transition Model
A model based on Western Europe experience of changes in population growth by countries undergoing industrialization.
Dependency Ratio
The ration between the number of people in a population between the ages of 15 and 64 and the dependent populations (children 0-14) and (elderly 65+).
Diffusion of fertility control
Population growth had declined in the developed countries through education programs, family planning programs coupled with AIDS prevention programs.
Doubling Time
The time required for a population to double in size.
Ecumene
The part of the Earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological Transition model
Society develops industrially and economically which improves living condition and healthcare. Shift from pandemics of infections degenerative diseases with old age.
Infant Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first years of their lives in a population.
J-Curve/S-Curve
A graph in which a curve of a line falls and rises higher than the starting point.The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as saturation begins, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops.
Thomas Malthus
“An Essay on the Principle of Population ” in which he had a perspective of the future populations would be so great than it would outstrip their resources.
Mortality
The death rate.
Neo-Malthusian
Wants to control overpopulation by means of birth control or abortion.
Overpopulation
A copious supply of population of an area to where you deplete your natural resources or the environment is deteriorating.
Population Densities
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Population Distributions
Descriptions of locations on Earth’s surface where populations live.
Population Explosions
A rapid growth of the worlds human population during the past century. It happens because of shorter doubling times and fast rates of increase.
Population Pyramid
Visual representation of age and sex composition of a population where it shows different age groups in percentages.
Rate of Natural Increase
Crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Standard of Living
Overall financial well being of a population measured by consumption, availability of goods, especially luxury items, education and other amenities.
Sustainability
Use of resources in a sufficient way so that they can be replaced rather than consumed for the next generation.
Underpopulation
To few people to fully develop and discover the true economic potential of an area.
Zero Population Growth
Birth rates and death rates are equal.
Chain Migration
A pattern of migration that develops through communication of relatives.
Cyclic Movement
A pattern that is followed annually or seasonly. It is a closed route.
Distance Decay
The effects of distance or interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Forced/Voluntary Migration
Moving or migration to a place in which you have no choice. Moving to a place for an opportunity but you are not forced.
Gravity Model
Mathematical prediction of the interactions of places. The interaction being a function of population size of places and the distance between them.
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Periodic Movement
Movement that is temporary.
Place Utility
The desirability and usefulness of a place to an individual or to a groups such as a family.
Push-Pull Factors
Consist of negative conditions and perceptions that make people leave their home and migrate to a different place. Consist of positive conditions that attracts people and bring them in.
Refugees
People who have left their home country because of political problems and persecution and want peace within another country.
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination but is done in increments.
Transhumance
A season periodic movement of pastoralist and their livestock between highland and low land pastures.

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