A system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative hypotheses then collecting and analyzing data to provide evidence for or against their hypotheses;
The spatial arrangement of places and
phenomena (human and physical)
– How are things organized on Earth?
– How do they appear on the landscape?
– Where? Why? So what?
• No place “untouched by human hands” or activity
• Human organization of communities, nations,
• Establishment of political, economic, religious,
The physical characteristics of a place.
The Four Traditions in Geography
1) Spatial tradition 2) Area studies tradition 3) Man-land tradition 4) Earth Science Tradition
The Five Themes in Geography
Location, place, human environment interaction, movement and region
physical position in relation to the surroundings
the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space
the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual’s perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
scale of analysis
a scale that determines what is being studies based on the size of the area being examined
ratio of map units to ground units
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
The spread of something over a given area.
scattered, spread, broken up
elements of a map
title, compass rose, points of reference, scale, key/legend
a way of representing the spherical Earth on a flat surface
types of maps
Political, Physical, Relief, Distribution, and Elevation, Physical maps, political maps, climate maps, population maps, economic maps, mental maps, and combination.
map user attempts to explain map patterns
sets of informal and formal social ties that link people to each other
interactions across value activities
a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities (objects or individuals or groups)
process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country; certain economic activities may dominate in particular regions.
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics, An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
An area organized around a node or focal point
An area that people believe to exists as part of their cultural identity (perceptual region)
An architectural layouts tendency to encourage or inhibit certain activities, such as contact between people
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
growth to a global or worldwide scale