AP Human Geography Vocab Chapter 1 Rubenstein

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Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area,
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Base Line
An east-west line designated under the land ordinance of 1875 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Cartography
The science of making maps.
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
Connections
Relationships among people and objects across a barrier of space.
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural Landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a groups distinct tradition.
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Environmental Determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Formal Region (Homogeneous Region)
An area in which everyone shares one or more distinct characteristics.
Functional Region (Nodal Region)
An area organized around a node or focal point.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise point of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 longitude.
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hierarchal Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one person or node to another of power to other persons or places.
International Date line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it eastward the clock moves back 24 hours or one entire day.
Land Ordinance 1875
A law that divided much of the United States into townships to facilitate the sale of land into settlers.
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring the distance north and south of the equator.
Location
The position of anything on Earth’s surface.
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring the distance east and south of the prime meridian.
Map
A two dimensional or flat representation of Earths surface or a portion of it,
Mental Map
A representation of a portion of Earths surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South Poles.
Parallel
A circle drawn Around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the Meridians.
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Polder
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from the an area.
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from man alternatives.
Prime Meridian
The meridian designated as 0 longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich England.
Principal Meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1875 to facilitate the surveying and numbering townships in the United States.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map.
Region
An area designated by a unique combination of trends or features.
Regional (cultural land scape) studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote Settings
The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods.
Resource
A substance in the environment is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically, the relationship between the size of the object on the map and the actual size of the feature on Earth’s surface.
Section
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided the townships in the United Sates into 36 sections.
Site
The physical location of a place.
Situation
The location of a place relative to another place.
Space
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Space-time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface.
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of them.
Transnational Corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Uneven Development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core an peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular Region (Perceptual Region)
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Categories: Human Geography