AP Human Geography Vocabulary- The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography (Chapter 1 Vocabulary)

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agricultural density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by the total land area
base line
an east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
cartography
the making or study of maps or charts
concentration
the spread of something over a given area
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of time
contagious diffusion
the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
cultural ecology
geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationship
cultural landscapes
fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
culture
customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions
density
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
diffusion
the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
distribution
the arrangement of something across earth’s surface
environmental determinism
nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
formal region(uniform or homogeneous region)
an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
an area organized around a node or focal point
GIS
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
GPS
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
GMT
the local time at the 0 meridian passing through Greenwich, England
hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originate
hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
international date line
an imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian
land ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
location
The position of anything on Earth’s surface.
longitude
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it.
mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
meridian
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
polder
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
prime meridian
meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)
principal meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map.
region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
regional studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular area study
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface.
sections
a square normally 1 mile on a side. the land ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
site
physical character of a place
situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
space
the physical gap or interval between two objects
space-time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
toponym
the name by which a geographical place is known
township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
transnational corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
vernacular region
An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity (perceptual region)
Categories: Human Geography