Ch. 9 (Ch. 10): Development (AP Human Geography)

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circular and cumulative causation
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect which tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions.
core-periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral models are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region.
cultural convergence
The increasing similarity in technologies and ways of life among societies at the same levels of development.
The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought into full productive use.
(In the cultural sense) Socially created -not biologically based- distinctions between femininity and masculinity.
gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specified time period, usually a calendar year.
gross national income (GNI)
The total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals; formerly called “gross national product.”
informal economy
(informal sector) That part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment; economic activity or individual enterprise operating without official recognition or measured by official statistics.
purchasing power parity (PPP)
A monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buy in each country.
spread effect/ trickle-down effect
The diffusion outward of the benefits of economic growth and prosperity from the power center or core area to poorer districts and people.
The integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods developed within or used by a culture to successfully carry out purposeful and productive tasks.
technology gap
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
technology transfer
The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society.
A level of economic and social achievement below what could be reached- given the natural and human resources of an area- were necessary capital and technology available.
Categories: Human Geography