Unit 1: Introduction to Human Geography Vocabulary

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Cartography
The science of making maps
Carl Sauer
Wrote about cultural landscapes=how human activity impacts the physical geography
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural Ecology
A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group’s distinct tradition
Cultural Landscape
The fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance-Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Division of Labor
The assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency
Environmental Denterminism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Equator
An imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from on area to another in additive process
Formal Region
An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Functional Region
An area organized around a node or focal point
GIS
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes and displays geographic data
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
GPS
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations and receivers
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian at 0 degrees longitude
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Hearth
The religion in which innovation ideas orginate
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east, towards America, the clock moves back 24 hrs, or one entire day and vise versa when you go west towards Asia
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator at 0 degrees
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian at 0 degrees
Mercator Projection
A projection of a map of the world onto a cylinder in such a way that all the parallels of latitude have the same length as the equator, used especially for marine charts and certain climatological maps
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but the people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Prejections
A system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Robinson Projection
Useful for displaying info across oceans; however, the disadvantage is that the area of land is much smaller.
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
Site
The physical characteristics of a place
Situation
The location of a place relative to another place
Space-Time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communication and transportation systems
Spatial Analysis
The study of space in a location
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle even through a specific characteristic is rejected
Time Zones
15° bands of longitude and assigned to a standard time zone
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
Uneven Development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular Region
An area that people exists as a part of their cultural identity
Categories: Human Geography