Unit 2 – AP Human Geography Review: Population and Migration QUESTIONS

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What is the world’s population? (estimate)
about 7 billion
What century has seen the largest population growth?
20th century
Which of the following has higher population growth rates? LDCs or MDCs
LDCs
Define demography.
the scientific study of population characteristics; how people are distributed spatially, age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, etc.
Describe the difference between distribution and density.
distribution: where the population is locates, how spread out or clustered it is
density: how many people are concentrated in a certain area
Where are the world’s population clusters?
East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe, and Eastern North America
Name three similarities between the populated regions.
1) Most people live near an ocean, or near a river w/ easy access to an ocean
2) Occupy generally low-lying areas
3) fertile soil and
4) temperate climate
5) All located in the Northern Hemisphere between 10 degrees and 55 degrees north latitude with the exception of part of the SE Asia concentration
What is the largest cluster of inhabitants? What countries does this cluster include?
East Asia; China, Japan, Korea, and the island of Taiwan
Where do the people of Korea and Japan mainly live? How do they make a living?
75% live in urban areas and work at industrial/service jobs
What is the 2nd largest cluster of population? What countries does this include?
South Asia; India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh
What is the world’s second most populous country?
India
How do most of the people in South Asia make a living?
Most are farmers
Where is the largest concentration of population in Southeast Asia?
Java, Indonesia; 100 million people
How do people in Southeast Asia make a living?
High percentage of farmers
Where is the largest population concentration in the Western Hemisphere?
Northeastern US and southeastern Canada; extends along the Atlantic Coast from Boston to Newport News, Virginia, and westward along the Great lakes to Chicago
Define ecumene.
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
What has happened to the ecumene over time?
Areas of Earth considered too harsh for occupancy have diminished while ecumene has increased
What four types of regions do people usually not inhabit?
Dry, wet, highlands, and cold
What is arithmetic density?
total number of people divided by the total number of land
What is land suited for agriculture called?
arable land
What is physiological density?
the number of people supported divided by a unit area of arable land
What is agricultural density?
the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
How do geographers most frequently measure population change in a country or the world as a whole?
measures of crude birth rate, crude death rate, and natural increase rate
What is the crude birth rate?
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
What is the crude death rate?
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
What is the natural increase rate?
the percentage by which a population grows in a year CBR-CDR
What is doubling time?
the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase
What is the total fertility rate?
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
What is the difference between the information provided by the total fertility rate and the crude birth rate?
Crude birth rate provides a picture of a society as a whole in a given year whereas the total fertility rate attempts to predict the future behavior of individual women in a world of rapid cultural change.
What is the average total fertility rate for the world?
3 (except within 0.5)
What is infant mortality rate?
the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with total live births
Describe the United States IMR in comparison to Canada and/or western Europe.
U.S. has a higher IMR than Canada and most of Europe. Many minorities in the US have IMR that are twice as high as the national average because they cannot afford good health care for their infants
Compare average life expectancy in Africa to the USA.
Africa=40’s; US=late 70’s;
What is the demographic transition?
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
What was the agricultural revolution?
the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
What was the industrial revolution?
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
What is zero population growth?
a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
What is a population pyramid?
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
What is the shape of a pyramid primarily determined by?
the crude birth rate in the community
What is the dependency ratio?
the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years
What age groups are a part of the dependents?
0-14; 65-plus
What is the sex ratio?
the number of males per hundred females
In poorer countries what partly explains the lower percentage of women?
high mortality rates during childbirth, poorer countries have a larger percentage of young people, where males generally outnumber females and a lower percentage of older people, where females are more numerous
What will high rate of immigration due to the sex ratio?
More males because males are more likely to undertake long-distance migration
Name a country in stage 3 of the demographic transition.
United States, Mexico, China, Eastern Europe or Latin America countries
What country is in stage 4 of the demographic transition?
Japan, Western Europe countries=Germany, France, Denmark, Sweden, etc
Where are most of the countries in the world on the demographic transition model?
Stage 2 or 3
What characterizes the four stage demographic transition?
Stage 1: high birth and death rates Stage 2: sudden drop in the death rate that comes from technological innovation, which has been accomplished everywhere;
Stage 3: the sudden drop in the birth rate that comes from changing social customs, urbanization,
Stage 4: low birth and death rates
Describe Malthus’ views.
Everyone would die of starvation because population was growing much more rapidly than Earth’s food supply.
Describe the Neo-Malthusian platform.
Contemporary geologists have found validity in Malthus’ theory because of the unprecedented rate of natural increase in LDCs. Malthus failed to anticipate that relatively poor countries would have the most rapid population growth, because of transfer of medical technology w/o wealth from MDCs.
How can natural increase be reduced?
By returning to stage 1 by raising the crude death rate up to the level of the crude birth rate or by moving to stages 3 and 4 by lowering the crude birth rate to the level of the crude death rate.
Name two major ways that the CBR can be reduced.
Contraceptives, women’s rights, more education, economic growth
Define migration.
A permanent move to a new location
Define emigration.
migration from a location
Define immigration.
migration to a location
What is net in-migration?
If the number of immigrants exceeds the emigrants, the net migration is positive, and the region has net in-migration.
What is net out-migration?
If the number of emigrants exceeds the immigrants, the net migration is negative, and the region has net out-migration.
Why do people still migrate despite globalization?
Location is still important to an individual’s cultural identity and economic prospects; in a global economy, an individual’s ability to earn a living depends on location; within a global culture, people migrate to escape from domination by other cultural groups or to be reunited with others of the same culture
What are three reasons for migrating?
Economic, environmental, family, persecution, and cultural
What is the main reason people migrate?
Economic
What is a push factor? Give an example.
Induces people to move out of their present location. Ex: discrimination, lack of opportunity, war, natural disasters, loss of freedoms
What is a pull factor? Give an example.
Induces people to move into a new location Ex: jobs, education, family, freedom
What are refugees?
people who have been forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Describe two main points about the distance that migrants travel to their home?
Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country; long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity
What is international migration?
Permanent movement from one country to another
What is internal migration?
Permanent movement within the same country
What is interregional migration?
Movement from one region of a country to another
What is intraregional migration?
Movement within one region
What has been the main type of intraregional migration?
From rural to urban areas in search of jobs; in more developed countries, migration has been from urban to environmentally attractive rural areas; the main type of intraregional migration has been within urban areas, from older cities to newer suburbs
What is voluntary migration?
The migrant has chosen to move for economic improvement
What is forced migration?
The migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors
What kind of push and pull factors usually induce voluntary migration?
Economic reasons
What kind of push and pull factors normally induce forced migration?
Cultural, political factors
International migration primarily comes from countries in what stage of the DTM?
Countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition
What type of internal migration is most likely in stage 2 countries?
The natural increase rate goes up rapidly as a result of a sharp decline in the crude death rate, international migration becomes important, as well as interregional migration from one country’s rural areas to its cities; migration patterns are a result of technological change; improvement in agricultural practices reduces # of people needed in rural areas, whereas jobs in factories attract migrants to cities in another region of the same country or to a different country
What type of internal migration is most likely in stage 3 and 4 countries?
In the demographic transition model, crude birth rates begin to decline in stages 3 and 4 as a result of social changes; in the migration transition, societies in stages 3 and 4 are the destinations of the international migrants leaving the stage 2 countries in search of economic opportunities; the principal form of internal migration is intraregional from cities to surrounding suburbs
What are two distinctive gender and family status patterns in migration?
Most long-distance migrants are male; most long-distance migrants are adult individual rather than families with children
What does the increased female migration to the US partially reflect?
The changing role of women, more education, opportunity, higher social status
What was the second era in United States immigration wave AND what group made up the immigrants?
mid 1800’s- early 1900’s; 90% from Europe
What was the third era in United States immigration wave AND what group made up immigrantss?
began in the 1970’s-present; ¾ from Latin America and Asia
Describe the first peak of European immigration to the US-give years and groups of immigrants.
Before 1840’s: 90% of immigrants came from England; during 1840-s and 50’s:immigration surged; 90% from Northern and Western Europe 2/5 from Ireland and 1/3 from Germany; desperate economic push factors compelled the Irish and German to migrate and Germans also migrated to escape from political unrest
How did Europe’s demographic transition affect its migration patterns?
The rapid population growth in Europe in the 1800’s fueled emigration, because there were limited opportunities for economic advancement; to promote more efficient agriculture, some European governments forced the consolidation of small farms into larger units “enclosure movement”, which forced millions of people to emigrate from rural areas; displaced farmers could choose between working in factories or migrating to the US or another country where farmland was plentiful; Now that European countries have a very low NIR, migration is not necessary
When did immigration in the United States drop sharply?
Great Depression and WWII; during Great Depression, emigrants exceeded immigrants by 1/4
What two countries have yielded the largest number of Asian immigrants?
China and India
What was slightly different in the 1980’s and 1990’s regarding Asian immigration? Name one of three leading immigration sources.
The three leading sources were the Philippines, Vietnam, and South Korea
How has the pattern of immigration the United States changed since 1800?
Changed from predominantly European to Asian and Latin American
Where are immigrants distributed in the United States?
¼ in California; ¼ in New York and New Jersey; ¼ in Florida, Texas, and Illinois; ¼ in the rest of the states; coastal states used to be the most clustered because immigrants arrived by ship; now all arrive by motor vehicle or airplane
What is chain migration?
the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
What are the estimates for undocumented immigrants?
from 3-20 million; of the 3 million predicted illegal immigrants, the INS estimates that 1/3 are from Mexico, 300, 000 from El Salvador; 100,000 each from Guatemala, Canada, Poland, the Philippines, and Haiti
What is a quota?
Maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the United States from each country during a 1-year period
What were quota laws designed to do?
To assure that most immigrants to the United States continued to be Europeans
What is a brain drain?
skilled workers and exceptionally talented professionals immigrating into MDCs from LDCs
What are guest workers?
A large-scale emigration by talented people for a period of time to work in higher-paid jobs than are available at home
What are the pros and cons of guest workers?
Raises unemployment but lowers it in the source country; Guest workers earn far more than they would at home
Describe problems with guest workers.
Guest workers suffer from poor social conditions and has little money; may face prejudice and feel isolated due to language and cultural barriers; guest workers are usually permanent despite the idea that they have that they will be staying temporarily; Some Western European countries pay guest workers to go home but their country of origin will not take them back; countries fear that guest workers will distort their culture
What are the two main times of internal migration?
Interregional and intraregional
How did the center of population change over time the U.S.?
It gradually moved west
Describe the recent growth of the south
Migrate for job opportunities and environmental reasons; more leisure time=attention more to vacation and weather
What regions are Americans currently emigrating to the most?
West and South
Describe internal migration in Russia.
Soviet officials were eager to try to develop Russia’s Far North and Siberia; Komsomol: a brigade of young volunteers sent to help construct projects; offered incentives like higher wages, more paid holidays, and earlier retirement; didn’t work too well
Describe internal migration in Brazil.
Government moved capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia 1000 km away from the coast in an effort to increase the attractiveness of the interior
Describe internal migration in Indonesia.
Since ’69, government has tried to pay more than 5 million people off the island of Java; government program gives families 5 acres of land, materials to build a house, seeds and pesticides, and food to tide them over until the crops are ready; participants have declined due to land that could not support agriculture and disruption of indigenous people
Describe internal migration in Europe.
European migration mostly for economy; southern to northern Italy; northern to southern in UK
Describe the when, where, and what of the migration from rural to urban areas.
Prevalent in 1800s for Europe and North America; ¾ of people in Europe and North America now live in urban areas; This has been very prevalent in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; Done for economic advancements
Describe the when, where, and what of the migration from urban to suburban areas.
Because of lifestyle offered, many more developed countries are experiencing suburbanization; expands the occupation of urban areas
Describe the when, where, and what of the migration from metro to non-metro areas.
Results from rapid expansion of suburbs; represent genuine migration from cities and suburbs to small towns and rural communities; Communications and transportations allow us to work anywhere and still have access to an international network; Many migrants in this category are tired; this processed has stopped since the 1980s because job opportunities have declined in rural areas and poor agricultural conditions
What is counter-urbanization?
Net migration from urban to rural areas
Categories: Human Geography