Human Geography Flashcards

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Birth Rate
Number of live births per one thousand populations in a year
Rate of Natural Increase
The birth rate minus the death rate
Fertility Rate
The average number of children a woman of childbearing years will have in her lifetime.
Population Density
The average number of people that live in a measurable area
Population Pyramid
A graphic device that shows the sex and age distribution of a population
Death Rate
Number of deaths per one thousand populations in a year
Infant Mortality Rate
The number of infants per one thousand who will die before reaching age one
Physiological Density
The total number of people per area of arable land, which is suitable for agriculture
The arrangement of a feature across Earth’s surface is its
distribution
The concept of space-time compression means
distant places in the world are becoming effectively closer together.
The spread of something over a given study area is
concentration.
The frequency of something within a given unit of area is
density.
Of the four major Earth systems, which one is composed of living organisms?
biosphere
An area distinguished by a unique combination of features is a(n)
region
Situation identifies a place by its
location relative to other objects.
The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface is known as
toponym
Site identifies a place by its
unique physical characteristics.
What elements of study do human and physical geography have in common?
They are concerned with where things occur and why they occur where they do.
The beach at Ipanema, Brazil, can be studied using tools
from both human and physical geography.
True or False…Distribution refers to the arrangement of observable phenomena across Earth.
True
True or False…The biosphere overlaps with each of the other three Earth systems.
True
True or False…The spread of an idea through the movement of people is known as stimulus diffusion.
False
True or False…Site and situation are both ways to describe a location.
True
True or False…For many people, the globalization of culture represents a threat to local diversity.
True
True or False…Geography is not concerned with the study of physical processes.
False
True or False…The communication revolution that promotes globalization of culture also permits the preservation of cultural diversity.
True
What is exponential growth?
A. Growth whose rate becomes more rapid as a number increases.
What is the number 1 way to lower birth rates in developing countries?
C. Gender equality (empowering women)
Among what people are the populations currently growing the fastest?
B. The world’s poorest people
Repetitive act of a group to the extent it becomes a characteristic of the group.
Custom
The spread of cultural ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior.
Cultural Diffusion
Physical or emotional discomfort or anxiety that one suffers when coming to live in a new place that is different from his or her own.
Culture Shock
Nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture.
Non-Material Culture
Repetitive act that a particular individual performs.
Habit
The idea or belief that your culture is better or more important than others.
Ethnocentrism
Group of persons related by common descent or heredity.
Race
Physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture.
Material Culture
You would be experiencing this if you witnessed people eating something that you or your culture is not used to.
Culture Shock
Why did Europeans colonize Africa?
God, Gold, and Glory
During what time period did the Americas largely gain independence from European colonization?
Early 1800s
During what time period did Africa largely gain independence from European colonization?
After WWII
Sovereignty
Independence from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Europe
Was transformed during the 19th and 20th centuries from a fragmented collection of kingdoms, principalities, and empires into nation-states.
Self-Determination
Many ethnic groups hold strong desires this, which is the right to govern themselves with sovereign states.
Nation-States
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs. It occupies a defined territory and has a permanent population.
Multinational states
This type of state has more than one ethnicity recognized as distinct nationalities.
Boundary
An invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent.
Colonialism
The effort of one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic and cultural principles on that territory.
Imperialism
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.

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