World Geography Chapter 1 Physical Geography
What are the five themes of geography?
5. Human-environment interaction
How do geographers view the world?
In terms of the use of space
What do historians study/look at?
events over time
What do geographers study/look at?
*use of space on Earth
*interactions that take place there
*patterns and connections between people and land
Geography is the the study of
the distribution and interactions of the physical features and human features on Earth
What tools do geographers use?
*charts, graphs, tables
*five themes of geography
What is absolute location?
the exact place where a geographic
What is relative location?
location of place compared to place
Earth is divided into 2 equals halves…
vertically and horizontally
Each vertical and horizontal half is called a
What is the Equator?
an imaginary line that divides the north and south halves of the Earth
What is the Prime Meridian?
an imaginary line that divides the east and west halves of the Earth
What are latitude lines?
imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator
What do geographers use latitude for?
to locate places north and south
What are longitude lines?
imaginary lines that go over the poles
What do geographers use longitude for?
to mark positions east and west
What do you call the point where latitude and longitude lines cross?
How a place is related to its surrounding environment is called what?
What is meant by the theme place?
Places includes physical features and cultural characteristics
What are physical features?
Climate, landforms, vegetation
What are cultural characteristics?
dams, highways, houses
What is meant by the theme region?
A region is an area united by similar characteristics
What are unifying characteristics?
Physical, political, economic , cultural
What are three types of regions
formal, functional, perceptual
How are formal regions defined?
by a limited number of related characteristics
List formal regions of the world
*The United States and Canada
*Russia and the Republics
*Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica
Define functional regions
organized around interactions and connections between places
Provide an example of functional regions
a city and its suburbs are connected through human movement
Define Perceptual Regions
region with characteristics people perceive in much the same way
What is an example of a perceptual region?
the American Midwest
What is meant by the theme human-environment interaction?
people’s relation to the physical world
How do people relate to the physical world?
*a relationship exists between people and their environment
*people use and change the environment to meet their needs
*people adapt to environmental conditions they cannot change
*often, people in similar environment adapt in different ways
What is meant by the theme movement?
how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another
What types of distance distance to geographers use to analyze data?
What is linear distance?
how far a person, product, or idea travels
What is time distance?
how long it takes for a person, product, idea to travel
What is psychological distance?
refers to the way people perceive distance; for example unfamiliar places may seem farther away than familiar ones
Describe tools geographers use
Geographers use two- and three-dimensional tools to learn about the earth. They also use computer-assisted technology to study the use of the earth’s surface.
What do maps show?
locations of places, landforms, bodies of water
What is the oldest known map?
Babylonian clay tablet, circa 500 B.C.
List types of 2 and 3-dimensional tools geographers use
What is a cartographer?
What is a globe?
a 3-dimensional representation (a sphere) of Earth
What is a map?
a 2-dimensional graphic representation of Earth’s surface
What is a map projection?
a way of showing the Earth’s curved surface
List 3 types of maps
1. General Reference
What is a topographic map?
a general reference map that show natural and man-made feature of earth
What is a thematic map?
a map that shows specific data such as climate, population density
Who uses navigation maps?
sailors and pilots
What do surveyors do?
observe, measure, & record what they see in a specific area
How is remote sensing (gathering geographic data from a distance) done?
aerial photography and satellite imaging
What are the best known satellites?
Landsat and GOES
What is Landsat?
a series of satellites that can scan entire planet in 16 days
What does GOES stand for?
Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite
What is GOES?
satellite that orbits in sync with Earth’s rotation and gathers images of atmospheric conditions
What are Geographic Information Systems (GIS)?
a digital geographic database that combines and displays information from many sources
What does GPS stand for?
Global Positioning System
What is GPS?
uses a series of 24 Navstar satellites to beam information to Earth; hand held GPS receivers on Earth display exact position; used by explorers, sailors, drivers, also used to track animals