Ancient History

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Nebuchadnezzar
Famous King of Chaldea and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylonia.
Homer
Author of Greek Epics (Trojan War). Greek poet
Octavian
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
Tarquin the Proud
according to legend, the seventh and last Etruscan king of Rome who was expelled for his cruelty (reigned from 534 to 510 BC)
Tutankhamen
Pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC, youngest pharoh, restored old gods, died at an early age
Pythagoras
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem
Hatshepsut
female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade
Akhenaton
early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC)
Juno
(Roman mythology) queen of the Olympian gods who protected marriage
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
Zeus
king of the gods
Nero
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Homo Habilis
Handy Man
Praetorian
special bodyguards, resembling the Roman imperial bodyguards
Ashurbanipal
king of Assyria who built a magnificent palace and library at Nineveh (668-627 BC)
Phedippedes
ran to Sparta, then ran back to Marathon with message. From there he ran to Athens announced they won, collapsed and died.
Cleopatra
last pharaoh of Egypt; had relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony; Octavian’s enemy
Hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest codes of law.
Homo sapien
The newest human breed of which all humans are descendents from; originated 240,000 years ago in Africa
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Julius Caesar
The general during the Roman Republic who took over after the civil war and established Rome as an empire.
Lucy
Australopithecus afarensis
Ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Hoplite
a heavily armed Greek foot soldier
Helot
spartan slave
Theocracy
government run by religious leaders
Cunneiform
Sumerian writing system
Hieroglyphics
egyptian writing system
Pogrom
unofficial persecutions on Christians, organized persecution of an ethnic group (especially Jews)
Martyr
people willing to die for their beliefs.
Grammaticus
School in Rome
Bread and Circus
poor people would perform for rich peoples entertainment.
Chariot racing and gladiators. (Rome)
Northern Mesopotamia
Good farmland, natural resources, plenty of rainfall
Southern Mesopotamia
Flat, sandy plains
Dry summers
Floods in winter
City-state
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Theocracy
A form of government in which religious officials rule.
Legends
a story retold from the past that is widely accepted as true.
Deshret
An Egyptian word meaning the red land, the desert
Kemet
black land- good soil and crops
Wadis
oases good soil and crops
Dynasty
Succession of rulers who claimed their descent from a common ancestor.
Ankh
Symbol of life. A cross with a loop on top
Menes
United upper and lower Egypt.
Monarchy
a government headed by a king or queen.
who made up greeks?
Minoans + Mycenaeans
Socrates
Arguing
Question Everything
Executed for not believing in the Gods, ancient Athenian philosopher
Plato
One of Socrates Students
Recorded speeches of Socrates
Father of Political Science
Founded The Academy to train government leaders
Wrote The Republic & The Dialogues.
Aristotle
Pupil of Plato at The Academy
Trained in Medicine
Classified plants & animals
Told scientists to question their experiments
Draconian
excessively severe
Aquaduct
a way to transport water. Were able to bring water into the center of the city. Good sewage systems
Categories: Ancient