The first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The second imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 206 BC – 220 AD. It was preceded by the Qin Dynasty.
A short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty (581-618 AD). Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang dynasty.
Formerly was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty. (ad 618-690 & 705-907),
An era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty.
A empire established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. Although the Mongols had ruled territories which included today’s northern China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style
A ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368-1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese.
The King of the state of Qin who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 BC.
Terra Cotta Army
A collection of sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210-209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.
The seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141-87 BC. His reign lasted 54 years — a record that would not be broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later.
The longest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River.
Empress Wu Zetian
A Chinese sovereign, who ruled officially under the name of her self-proclaimed “Zhou dynasty”, from 690 to 705. She was the only female emperor of China in more than four millennia.
The custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to prevent further growth.
A geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the ____ dynasty from 322-185 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra.
An Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE. One of India’s greatest emperors who reigned over a realm that stretched from the Hindu Kush mountains in the west to Bengal in the East and covered the entire Indian subcontinent except parts of present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Literature, music, dance, sculpture, and Sanskrit are one of the many achievements. Buddhist monasteries taught astronomy, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, and religion. Gupta mathematicians invented the decimal system and the numerals that most of the world uses today.
Roman Republic period
The period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome’s control expanded from the city’s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
A political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC).
First Triumvirate (all three men)
A political alliance between three prominent Roman politicians which included Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Second Triumvirate (all three men)
The name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Octavius (Octavian, Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 26 November 43 BCE with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which is viewed as marking the end of the Roman Republic.
A Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War.
A Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Part of the First Triumvirate.
The founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Was apart of the Second Triumvirate.
A Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Part of the Second Triumvirate.
The last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt,
Battle of Actium
The decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the city of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece. Octavian’s fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony’s fleet was supported by the ships of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Roman Empire Period
The post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
(Latin for “Roman peace”) The long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by the Roman military force experienced by the Roman Empire after the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic and before the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century.