Unit 2, Lesson 5

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Appian Way
The major road that connected Rome to Capua, which was one of the most important cities in ancient Italy
One of the most famous & enduring military roads
Eventually became the major route to Greece
Route has remained virtually unchanged since it was first paved more than 2,200 years ago
Commissioned by Roman official named Appius Claudius Caesus in 300 BCE
Appius Claudius Caesus
Commissioned Appian Way in 300 BCE
Initiated construction of Rome’s first aqueduct to bring water to the city from nearby hills
Undertakings set stage for hundreds of miles of aqueducts & thousands of miles of paved highway built throughout Rome’s empire
aqueduct
a pipe or channel for moving water to a lower level, often across a great distance
Roman Architecture
Romans absorbed architectural traditions of areas they conquered; most notably Greece
Added constructional skills of Etruscans (immediate neighbors in central Italy)
Most significant achievements of Romans were in building technology: use of much wider range of building materials, including concrete, terra cotta, & fired bricks; refinement of arch, vault, & dome, which has been pioneered by Etruscans
Applied knowledge in construction of empire’s monumental buildings: baths, amphitheaters, aqueducts, & market places
Began as a form of worship, & first Roman architects were ancient priests & dwellers who constructed areas of sacrifice & worship for their gods
Constructions were simple huts at first, but as people became more skilled & more aware of their surroundings, they erected monumental sites for their gods
Romans turned to stone buildings in 3rd century BCE & temples were modeled on those of the Greeks, with addition of high plinth & omission of side & rear columns
Roman architects designed & decorated temples to be viewed from 1 perspective, while Greek temples were designed to be viewed from multiple sides
amphitheater
a round or oval building without a roof that has a central open space surrounded by tiers of seats
plinth
a square block beneath a column, pedestal, or statue
Roman Civic Monuments
Included a number of buildings of unprecedented size & complexity
Construction of aqueducts, thermae, basilicas, theaters, triumphal arches, amphitheaters, circuses, & palaces involved enclosing much larger spaces or bridging much greater distances than could be achieved using Greek beam-and-column construction system
basilica
a type of ancient Roman building that has a central nave with an aisle on each side formed by two rows of columns, and typically a terminal semicircular apse
It is considered that ancient history ends and modern history begins in
Rome
The Romans were considered masters of
architecture & engineering
Romans built on a scale and in quantities that were
never seen in any civilization before theirs
Roman conquests encouraged & accelerated the spread of Roman innovations throughout the ____ world.
Mediterranean
Categories: Ancient