World History-Ancient India

Subcontinent
a large landmass that forms a distinct part of a continent. India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are also known as the Indian Subcontinent
Monsoon
seasonal winds that would blow dry air and great rain clouds across India. Also, they can cause floods and droughts
Harappa
was one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization. This city had great city planning including a grid system for their street layout. Also, they had sophisticated sewage and plumbing systems.
Mohinjo Daro
this one of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization
Indo-Europeans
A group of nomadic peoples who may have come from dry grasslands. They herded cattle, sheep, and goats. They tamed horses and rode into battle on chariots. Their language is the ancestor of many modern languages. The Indo-Europeans settled and divided themselves up by langauge.
Migration
when people move
Aryans
another group of Indo-Europeans. The enemies of the Aryans were the “dasas”. The Aryans were tall and light skin color. The Aryans had no writing system and counted wealth by number of cows. They organized themselves into 4 groups: Brahmans(Priests), warriors, traders and landowners, and peasants or traders
Vedas
four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for rituals produced by the Aryans. The Rig Veda was the most important part which included 1028 hymns to Aryan gods
Brahmin
these are the priests of the Hindu religion.
Caste
(Hinduism) a hereditary social class among Hindus. The caste determines what kind of job he will have, what he can eat, who he can marry, and who his friends will be. Teh different caste are Priests, warriors and rulers, professsionals and merchants and landowners, or servants
Reincarnation
The Hindu and Buddhist belief that after the body dies, the soul goes into the body of another living thing. The soul can be reborn into the body of a human or animal. Hindus call it samsara. Hindus believe that karma determines how the soul will be reborn in the next life. Buddhist believe that the actions in the first life, can cause happiness or suffering in the first
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his family’s wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha. He wandered for six years searching for the answer, and found while meditating under a tree
Enlightenment
in Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe
Nirvana
the state at which people finally rid themselves of all desires and the reincarnation cycle would stop and they would become one with the universe
Mauryan Empire
started by Chandrugupta Maurya seizes control and grows his empire by conquest. He creates a bureacratic government. He divides the government to make it easier. It falls apart after Asoka dies and small kings batle to gain control
Asoka
became king of the Mauryan empire in 269 B.C. At first he waged war to expand the empire, but felt sorrow after a devastating battle. After that he decided to rule by Buddha’s teachings and demonstarted concern for the citizens well-beings
religious toleration
acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs
Mahayanna
this sect of Buddhist beleived that Buddha was more than a teacher, he was a god. They believe that nirvana is a paradise like the Christian heaven, and that saints can help men to reahc nirvana
Theravada
Another sect of Buddhist who believed that Buddha was simply a teacher, and that the holiest life is at followed by Buddhist monks
Patriarchal
The father or oldest male is the authority figure in the family
Matriarchal
relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family.
Gupta Empire
started by Chandra Gupta who married into the royal family, this empire is started years after the Mauyran Empire. The farmers payed heavy taxes. They flourished arts, religions, and science
Brahma
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Shiva
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
Silk Road
these were the vast network of caravan routes that traders brung silk from china to western asia
Tamil
these were people of southern india who spoke the Tamil language
Mahabharata
one of the Epics in the Vedas. It is the longest poem ever writtin
Chadragupta Maurya
founder of the Mauryan empire; conquered all of northern India by utilizing a strong army
Categories: Ancient