AP US CH. 18

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When did the most important advances in industrialization occur?
the last third of the ninteenth century
American industrial growth was concentrated where?
The northeast
What was the most significant technical innovation of the ninteenth century?
The railroad
What did the development of the national railway system lead to?
an integrated national economic system
Why was rapid rail construction after the civil war possible?
federal and state governments provided important incentives
A major change in the railroad industry after the Civil War was the development of
a major railroad trunk lines
Where did the two transcontinental railroad lines meet?
Promontory, Utah
What happed to American railroads in 1894?
they suffered from competition and overexpansion
The most important figure in American Finance
J.P. Morgan
How was the measure of a nation’s industrial progress determined after 1870?
the production of steel
The first company to become a billion-dollar company
U.S. Steel
What was the first modern trust?
Standard Oil
What was the most important development in the communications system in the late ninteenth century?
the telephone
The two most important developments of the late ninteenth century
telephone and light bob
The greatest inventor of the late ninteenth/early twentieth-century was
Thomas A. Edison
NOT an innovator in retailing in the ninteenth century
Cyrus Field
What did the development of brand names, chain stores, and mail order houses do?
provided convienence and standardization
What was the status of most working women?
young and single
What was the compairson of female workers to male workers?
females were regulated to traditionally “feminine” jobs
Which group recieved the greatest rewards from industrialization?
white, native-born males
Why did the knights of labor fail?
it could not provide effect national leadership
What did the American Federation of Labor emphasize?
economic goals for workers
What was the AFL’s position on women?
they ignored or opposed them as members
Who was involved in the great stirke of 1877?
railroad workers
What did the principle of “iron law wages” state?
supple and demand regulated wages
What effect did the American government have on industrial growth?
it provided incentives for growth
NOT a factor in American industrial development
industrialization of the South after the Civil War
How did American railroads differ form European railroads?
European railroads were built between already existing towns, American railroads created new towns
Why didn’t early American railroads link different regions to eachother?
They had different schedules and incompatible gauges
What is the significance of the adoption of a standard gauge for railroads?
trains could now travel on all tracks which integrated the whole system
Chronological order of industrial developments
transcontinential railroad, first trust, U.S. Steel Co.
INCORRECTLY assoscited with industry he helped found
Henry Bessemer- railroads
Why was Andrew Carnegie so successful?
he understood how to organize steel managment
What happened when Carnegie sold Carnegie Steel?
J.P. morgan combined it with other steel companies
Why did John. D. Rockefeller reject competition among oil companies?
he said that consolidation instead of competition
Consequence of forming the Standard Oil Trust
Other industries followed its lead
What is a result of the proliferation of patents in the ninteenth century?
Americans no longer imported technology
Significance of American Telephone and Telegraph
it combined local phone systems into one large corporation
What was special of Edison’s lab at Menlo Park?
it was the first modern research lab ever built
What does “feminizing” professions mean?
women took jobs in certain fields caused men to leave those fields lowering the status of those jobs
What was the early American Federation of Labor like?
an alliance of craft unions that worked to imporve wages and working conditions
What was the Knights of Labor?
a union of producers aimed at uplifting and utopian reform
Why did Samuel Gompers oppose women in the AFL?
women would lower the pay scales
What was a result of the Haymarket Square Riot?
weakened the national labor movement
What was the result of the Homestead strike?
emphasized the coast of industrialization
What was a negative effect of industrialization in the US during the ninteenth century?
a growing dispairity income between the rich and poor
Categories: History