AP World History Chapter 10 Review

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Where was the Byzantine Empire, what was it’s capital, and what was the main religion?
It was in the eastern half of the christian world which encompassed much of the basin, its capital was Constantinople.
What was the state of western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire?
It emerged as an especially dynamic, expansive, and innovative 3rd wave civilization, combining elements of the Greco-Roman past with the culture of Germanic and Celtic peoples to produce a distinctive hybrid, or blended civilization.
How did the new western civilization differ from Byzantine?
In the way that western Europe was highly localized, fragmented, decentralized, and competitive their church became like the roman.
What type of Christianity dominated Western Europe?
Roman Catholic
What advantages did the eastern Roman Empire have that allowed it to ward off Germanic tribes and avoid collapse?
A stronger army, navy, and merchant marine as well as clever diplomacy.
How did Byzantine attempt to preserve the Roman Empire?
They referred to them selves as ‘Romans’, the emperors forbid wearing boots, trousers, clothing made from animal skins, and long hair styles and insisted on roman style clothing.
What territories did Byzantine lose due to Arab/Islamic expansions in the 7th century?
Syria/Palestine Egypt and North Africa to the Arab/Islamic expansion
What territories did Byzantine continue to control in the 7th century?
Greece, Balkans, and Anatolia.
Why did Byzantine territory shrink after 1085 CE?
Incursions by aggressive western european powers, catholic crusaders, and Turkic muslim invaders.
What marked the final end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 CE?
The turkic ottoman empire, then known as the “sword of islam” finally took Constantinople
What is caesaropapism?
when the church was intimately tied to the state, they were lead by a “Caeser” who was the head of state, the pope, and head of church.
How were the Byzantine churches decorated?
They were filled with icons, religious paintings of Jesus, Mary, and numerous saints-some of them artistic masterpieces, that many believed conveyed Divine Presence to believers
What elements did Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic Christianity have in common?
They both derived from the growth of Christianity in the Roman Empire so therefor they both believed in the same teachings of Jesus, the bible, sacraments, church heirachy of patriarchs, bishops, and priests, missionary impulse, and intolerance toward other religions.
What are the differences between Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic Christianity?
Theology, church practice, nature of the Trinity, source of the Holy Spirit, original sin, and relative importance of faith.
What occurred in 1054 CE to further divide these 2 branches of Christianity?
Representatives of both churches mutually excommunicated each other, declaring in affect that those in the opposing tradition were not true christians.
What was Greek Fire and who was it used against?
a potant and flammable combination of oil, sulfur, and lime that was launched from bronze tubes (its green and burns on water), it was used as a flamethrower to fend off Arabs.
What Byzantine products wherein high demand within trade networks?
Jewelry, gemstones, silver and gold work, woolen textiles, purple dyes
How did Cyril and Methodius help spread Christianity to Slavic people?
They developed an alphabet based on the Greek letters, with which Slavic languages could be written so they could translate the bible.
Why did Prince Vladimir of Kiev want to adopt a new religion?
He was searching for a new religion that would unify the diverse peoples of his region, while connecting them to the outer world.
Why did Prince Vladimir choose Easter Orthodox Christianity?
It captured the imagination of Rus’s envoys and also political and economic benefits.
What Byzantine elements did Kievan Rus consequently adopt?
Architecture styles, the Crylic alphabet, extensive use of icons, monotheistic tradition stressing prayer and service, political ideas of imperial control of the church.
How did Charlemagne attempt to recreate the unity of the Roman Empire?
He erected an embryonic imperial bureaucracy, standardized weights and measures, and began to act like an imperial ruler.
How did Otto I of Saxony attempt to recreate the unity of the Roman Empire with his Holy Roman Empire?
By approaching Roman Imperial authority, these efforts testify to continuing appeal of the classical world.
What is feudalism and how did it work?
It was a highly decentralized and fragmented society with great local variation in thousands of independent, self sufficient, and largely isolated landed estates or manors, power-political, economic, and social- was exercised by a warrior elite of landowning lords.
What is the difference between serfs and slaves?
Serfs were not the personal property of there masters, could not be arbitrarily thrown off their land and were allowed to live in families
What did serf families receive in return for their labor?
a small farm and such protection as the lord could provide
What was the “top-down” strategy of Christian missionaries in Western Europe?
They converted the wealthy and protectors first and everyone else followed
What was the investiture conflict? What was the compromise?
it was about if the church could appoint bishops and popes and they decided to let the church appoint them to an extent
What happened to Europe’s agriculture and population during the High Middle Ages?
it grew from 35 million to 80 million and much of the land was turned into fields
What groups of people existed in medieval towns and cities?
they had groups of merchants, bankers, artisans, and university trained professor
What are guilds?
a association preserving the same line of work
What urban professions were open to European women between the 11th and 13th centuries?
Weaving, brewing, milling grain, midwifery, small state-retailing, laundering, spinning, and prostitution.
Why did urban professions were open to European women decline by the 15th century?
Technological advances and men taking over.
What were the Crusades?
A series of Holy Wars that captured the imagination of the western Christendom for centuries
What benefits were awarded to participants in the Crusades?
they were given an indulgence, which removed the penalties for any confessed sins, as well as various material benefits, such as immunity from law suits and a moratorium on the repayment of debts
What was the focus of the most famous Crusades?
Wrestling Jerusalem and the holy places associated with the life of jews from Islamic control and returning them to Christendom
What other territories/groups of people (besides the Islamic Middle East) were targets of crusading?
Lands along the Baltic Sea, Byzantine Empire, Russia, Eastern Orthodox Christianity
How did contact and interactions with the Islamic world impact Europeans?
It brought long-term consequences to Europe by that Spain, Sicily, and the Baltic region were brought permanently into the world of western christendom, while a declining Byzantine was further weakened by the crusader sacking of Constantinople.
In what way was Western Europe less developed than other civilizations at this time?
Its cities were smaller, its political authorities weaker, its economy less commercialized and its technology inferior
What was the most significant source of European borrowing?
From China
What did the Europeans learn about from this civilization?
Spices, silks, porcelain, and sugar and assimilated technological, intellectual, and cultural innovations
What are some new mechanisms/devices the Europeans began to use as sources of power instead of human/animals?
They used windmills, and water driven mills
Europeans were the first to use gunpowder in what item?
Canons
What factors prevented the emergence of a single European empire after the fall of the Roman Empire?
Graphic Barriers, ethnic and linguistic diversity, and shifting balance
How did this fragmented political system shape the emerging civilization of the West?
it giving rise to frequent wars, enhanced the role and status of military men, and drove the “gun powder” revolution.
How were many European merchant cities able to gain political independence and authority?
their practice of caesaropapism
What were some privileges enjoyed by European merchant cities?
Who made up the 3 estates of the 1st parliament?
the first was made of the clergy (higher ups), the second was made up of the landowning nobility (nobles that own land), and the third was made of urban merchants (merchants)
What were some early european universities and how were they “zones of intellectual” autonomy?
Some were in Paris, Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, Salamanca and they were zones in which scholars could pursue their studies with some freedom from the dictates of religious or political authorities, although the freedom was never complete.
Whose writing became the basis for university education in Western Europe? What did Thomas Aquinas do with his writings?
Aristotle writings became the basis and Aquinas integrated his writing into a logical and systematic presentation of Christian Doctrine
Categories: History