This 1903 treaty granted the United States control over a canal zone ten miles wide across the isthmus of Panama. In return, the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and agreed to pay Colombia a onetime fee of $10 million and an annual rental of $250,000
President Theodore Roosevelt’s 1904 foreign policy statement, a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which asserted that the United States would intervene in Latin American affairs if the countries themselves could not keep their affairs in order. It effectively made the United States the policeman of the western hemisphere. The Roosevelt Corollary guided U.S. policy in Latin America until it was replaced by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy in the 1930’s.
This policy, adopted by William Howard Taft and Secretary of State Philander C. Knox, sought to promote U.S. financial and business interest abroad. It aimed to replace military alliances with economic ties, with the idea of increasing American influence and securing lasting peace. Under this policy, Taft worked in Latin America to replace European loans with American ones, assumed the debts of countries such as Honduras to fend off foreign bondholders, and helped Nicaragua secure a large loan in exchange for U.S. control of its national bank.
Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of “dollar diplomacy.” Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson’s policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy. Wilson, however, often ended up pursuing policies much like those followed by Roosevelt and Taft.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all american men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of World War I, 24.2 million men had registered; 2.8 million had been introduced into the army. The age limits were later changed to 18 and 45.
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
Created in 1917 by President Woodrow Wilson and headed by progressive Journalist George Creel, this organization rallied support for American involvement in WWI through art, advertising and film. Creel worked out a system of voluntary censorship with the press and distributed colorful posters and pamphlets. The CPI’s Division of Industrial Relations rallied labor to help the war effort.
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
A wartime law that imposed harsh penalties on anyone using “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the U.S. government, flag or armed forces.
War Industries Board
An example of the many boards and commissions created during WWI, this government agency oversaw the production of all american factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.
A wartime government agency that encouraged american to save food in order to supply armies overseas. IT fixed prices to boost production, asked people to observe “meatless” and “wheatless” days to conserve food, and promoted the planting of “victory gardens” behind homes, schools, and churches.
In January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson presented these terms for a far-reachig, nonpunititve settlement of WWI. He called, among other things, for removal of barriers to trade, open peace accords, reduction of armaments, and the establishment of a League of Nations. While generous and optimistic, the Points did not satisfy wartime hunger for revenge, and thus were largely rejected by European Nations.