APUSH – Chapter 18: Riots/Strikes/Unions
railroad strikes (1877)
*actions*: strikers burned buildings; president hayes sent out troops 2 weeks after strike started
*results*: over 100 people died, 2/3 of railroads stopped running. caused public hysteria about unions and strikes
haymarket riot (chicago 1886)
*cause/actions*: police shot/killed 4 strikers from mccormick harvest plant, leading to a rally the next day. someone threw a bomb, which ultimately killed 7 policemen. police fired into crowd, 4 protesters killed.
*result*: anti-union sentiment grew, protestors who roganized rally arrested (anarchists, immigrants) — caused americans to fear these groups
knights of labor
one of the largest labor unions in the US; reached height of membership in 1880s
leader of knights of labor
american federation of labor
labor union that organized for skilled workers only
leader of american federation of labor
great strike (1877 aka “the wildcat strike”)
*cause/actions*: wages cut for workers on baltimore & ohio RR. strike spread up and down east coast and to major cities across US. troops sent in to end strike.
*result*: public began opposing unions, which allowed employers to “crack down” on labor — new contracts, use of private police force (pinkertons), and use of govnt/military to suppress strikes
yellow dog contracts
signed by workers where they agreed not to strike or join a union
coeur d’alene strike (1892)
*cause/actions*: wage cuts; miners blew up a mill and captured the guards sent to defend the mill.
*result*: the union was crippled because they used the idaho national guard to stop the strike
homestead strike (1892)
*cause/result*: carnegie steel — wages cut & workers locked out (hoping to end union). strikers fired on pinkertons; fight broke out. strikers and pinkertons killed. natl guard sent out to stop strike/riot; union was crushed
pullman strike (1894)
*cause/result*: wages cut while rents/costs of living in “company town” not lowered. workers went on strike, which slowed down railroads. federal injunction issued to stop strike; strike continued. debs was arrested and federal troops sent in, which led to a riot. people died. union was crushed.
resulted in deaths of strikers and the eruption of violence. use of govnt troops to end strike. led to the american people fearing unions and unions finding their power weakened