apush chapter 23-26 practice questions set #1

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Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur.
A. James J. Hill
1. Central Pacific
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central
C. Leland Stanford
3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
4. Great Norther
A-4, B-2, C-1
The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
Great Northern.
One by-product of the development of the railroads was
the movement of people to cities.
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
the railroad network.
The United States changed to standard time zones when
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks.
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called
Early railroad owners formed “pools” in order to
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.
After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
elimination of as much competition as possible.
Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
3. vertical integration
4. pool
A-3, B-2, C-1
Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie
1. steel
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
3. tobacco
D. James Duke
4. banking
A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
Henry Bessemer.
J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)
interlocking dictorate
America’s first billion-dollar corporation was
United States Steel.
The first major product of the oil industry was
The oil industry became a huge business
using federal agents to break his competitors
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry except
using federal agents to break his competitors
The “gospel of wealth,” which associated godliness with riches,
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money.
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
avoid corporate regulation by the states.
The _______________ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.
During the age of industrialization, the South
remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.
The South’s major attraction for potential investors was
cheap labor
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______________ manufacturing to the “new South.”
Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
the only steady jobs and wages available.
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
The group most affected by the new industrial age was
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following except
new educational requirements for jobs
The image of the “Gibson Girl” represented
a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic “new woman.”
Most women workers of the 1890s worked for
economic necessity.
Which one of the following is least like the other three?
closed shop
Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A. National Labor Union 1. the “one big union” that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
B. Knights of Labor 2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
C. American Federation of Labor 3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
A-2, B-1, C-3
In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won
an eight-hour day for government workers
One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate businesses and industries.
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies
by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.
One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its
lack of class consciousness
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
American Federation of Labor
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless,
the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
By 1900, organized labor in America
had begun to develop a more positive image with the public.
The people who found fault with the “captains of industry” mostly argued that these men
built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.
Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because
America has greater social mobility than Europe has.
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion except
immigration restrictions.
The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was
a trend that affected Europe as well.
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was
the availability of industrial jobs
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
Interstate Commerce Commission.
Categories: History