APUSH Chapter 24

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When private railroad promoters asked the united states government for subsudues to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons for their request except that it was
the railroads would repay the subsidies by paying higher taxes
during the gilded age, most of the tailroad barons
built their railroads with government assistance
the national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with
land grants
the only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
great northern
one by-product of the development of the railroads was
the movement of people to cities
the greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-civil war years was
the railroad network
the united states changed to standard time zones when
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks
agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profts were called
pools
early railroad owners formed “pools” in order to
avoid competition by dividing business in a particular area
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by
state legislatures
the first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
interstate commerce commission
one of the most significant aspects of the interstate commerce act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business
after the civil war, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the united states
helped to build the nation into an industrial giant
one of the methods by which post-civil war busines leaders increased their profits was
increased competition
the steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
henry bessemer
J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of upposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as an
interlocking dictorate
Americas first billion-dollar corporation was
united states steel
the first major product of the oil industry was
kerosene
the oil industry became a huge business
with the invention of the internal combustion engine
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry except
using federal agents to break his competitors
the “gospel of wealth,” which associated godliness with riches,
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their god-given money
to help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the fourteenth amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
avoid corporate regulation by the states
the________ amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themdelves against regulation by state governments
fourteenth
the sherman anti-trust act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
labor unions
during the age of industrialization, the south
remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural
the south’s major attraction for potential investors was
cheap labor
in the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted__________ manufacturing to the “new south”
textile
Many southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
the only steady jobs and wages available
one of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock
the group most effected by the new industrial age was
women
despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers extremely vulnerable to all of the following except
new educational requirements for jobs
the image of the “Gibson Girl” represented
a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic “new women”
most women workers of the 1890s worked for
economic necessity
which one of the following is least like the other three
closed shop
generally, the supreme court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the constitution in such a way as to favor
corporations
in its efforts on behalf of workers, the national labor union won
an eight-hour day for government workers
one group barred from membership in the knights of labor was
chinese
the knights of labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate businesses and industries
the knights of labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be perserved from corrupt monopolies
by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers
one of the major reasons the knights of labor failed was its
lack of class consciousness
what most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-civil war period was the
american federation of labor
by 1900, american attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. nevertheless,
the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor
by 1900, organized labor in america
had begun to develop a more positive image with the public
the people who found fault with the “captains of industry” mostly argued that these men
built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers
even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the united states because
america has greater social mobility than europe has.
all of the following were important factors in post-civil war industrial expansion except
immigration restrictions
Categories: History