APUSH Chapter 38 & 39

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Six Day War
tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967
Peace Corps
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in this Vietnamese village; this deepened American people’s disgust for the Vietnam War.
Kent State Killings
In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at Kent State University. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Operation Rolling Thunder
Launched by President Johnson, a massive air bombarbment of North Vietnam, in April of 1965. The targets were directly chosen by the president. These were regular full scale bombing attacks against Vietnam.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet statesman who became president of the Soviet Union (1906-1982) after Khrushchev.
Flexible Response
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
CREEP
Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and a staunch segregationist. He was a popular figure among segregationists becoming a rallying point.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Henry Kissinger
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon’s presidency (1970s).
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Cambodian incursion
series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during the late spring-early summer of 1970 by the armed forces of the US and South Vietnam; “the most successful military operation of the entire war”
Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
Great Society
LBJ’s proposals to relieve poverty, aid education, healtchare, voting rights, and several other major legislatives initiatives
George McGovern
A senator from South Dakota during the Cold War; he also ran for president against Nixon in 1972. His defeat signaled that America was in the mood for change from the Democrats.
Spiro Agnew
Governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stands against dissidents and black militants. He strongly supported Nixon’s desire to stay in Vietnam. He was forced to resign in October 1973 after having been accused of accepting bribes or “kickbacks” from Maryland contractors while governor and Vice President.
Watergate
A political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice. Led to the resignation of Richard Nixon in 1974
Detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Revenue sharing
distribution of part of the federal tax income to states and municipalities
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Robert S. McNamara
was the secretary of defense under Kennedy. He helped develop the flexible response policy. He was against the war in Vietnam and was removed from office because of this.
Lyndon B. Johnson
The 36th US president. He privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism.
Barry Goldwater
unsuccessful presidential candidate against Lyndon Johnson in 1964; he called for dismantling the New Deal, escalation of the war in Vietnam, and the status quo on civil rights. Many see him as the grandfather of the conservative movement of the 1980s.
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Robert Kennedy
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Gerald Ford
38th President of the United States. Appointed Vice President and succeeded Nixon when Nixon resigned.
Categories: History