APUSH Identifications Chapters 37-38

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Earl Warren
Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969 who presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case. He used a loose interpretation of the Constitution to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement.
Ho Chi Minh
The communist leader of North Vietnam. He used geurilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks; his strategy drew out the Vietnam war and made it so that there was no victor.
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. He was killed in a coup in 1963.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
A military officer who rose to power after the overthrow the previous Egyptian ruler who had allowed foreigners to dominate his country; he set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination. Over his time in power, he nationalized the Suez Canal, ended British and French control over Egypt, and instituted socialist policies for Egypt (ex: nationalized banks and businesses, and launched reforms that broke up large estates and distributed the land to peasant farmers).
Nikita Khruschev
The first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953-64) and premier of the Soviet Union (1958-64) during a crucial period of the Cold War. He was the successor to Joseph Stalin and actually reversed several of Stalin’s policies.
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the regime of the dictator Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state
Massive Retaliation
The Eisenhower administration’s policy doctrine for containing Soviet communism by pledging to respond to any act of aggression with the most destructive capabilities available, including nuclear weapons.
Military-Industrial Complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned Americans of its danger in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that were associated with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 – The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Geneva Conference
A conference held to establish the government of Vietnam after the French decision to leave the country. The agreement divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Ho Chi Minh’s government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Lee Harvey Oswald
The prime suspect in the Kennedy assassination.
Lyndon B. Johnson
President from 1963 to 1969. He is accredited to signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law. He launched a “War on Poverty” during his presidency, as evident by the creation of a Department of Housing and Urban Development. In addition, the creation Medicare and Medicaid are attributed to his time in office. His involvement in Vietnam undermined the domestic reforms he was trying to institutionalize.
Barry Goldwater
The Republican contender against Lyndon B. Johnson for presidency in 1964.
Malcolm X
A Civil Rights activist who renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; he converted to Islam in jail in the 50s and became Black Muslims’ most dynamic street orator and recruiter. His beliefs were the basis of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist principles in order to achieve true independence and equality.
Stokely Carmichael
A black Civil Rights activist in the 1960’s. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr. but later changed his attitude. He urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying, “Black power will smash everything Western civilization has created.”
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states’ rights. He ran for the presidency in 1968 on the independent party ticket and once again in 1972, all the while campaigning for those beliefs.
Flexible Response
The buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without resorting to the use of nuclear weapons. This way, there would be a variety of defense tactics to use in response to a threat.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Alliance of Progress
This was a Marshall Plan for Latin America that was suggested by President Kennedy to help the Good Neighbors close the gap between the rich and the poor and to help quiet the communist agitation. It was unsuccessful because there was little alliance and no progress.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
In 1961, an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro; the effort was funded by the U.S. and was famously disastrous.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev appeased to the U.S. demands a week later.
Great Society
The name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson that called for many large scale reform projects, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
A resolution adopted by Congress in 1964 that gave the president the authority to “take all necessary measures” to repel any attacks and “to prevent further aggression.” The resolution became the legal basis for the Vietnam War.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Tet Offensive
In 1968, the National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack during the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; it was a major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment.
Categories: History