Ch. 18 History 1302 Study Guide

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Which of the following individuals was NOT an innovator in retailing in the late nineteenth century?
Cyrus Field
The greatest inventor of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America was
Thomas Edison
Most working women
Were young and single
A major change in the railroad industry after the Civil War was the development of
major railroad trunk lines
How effect did the American government have on industrial growth?
It provided incentives for growth
Why did Samuel Gompers oppose women in the American Federation of Labor?
He believed that women workers would lower the pay scales for men.
Which was NOT a consequence of the advent of advertising and large-scale retailing?
Most consumers felt threatened by new industrial goods.
What does it mean to say that some professions became “feminized” in the late 1800s
As more women took jobs in certain fields, men left them, and this lowered the status of these professions.
The first modern trust was
Standard Oil
How were American railroads different from European railroads?
European railroads were built between already existing towns, but American railroads often created the towns that they served.
What was the result of the Homestead Strike?
It emphasized the cost of industrialization.
Which of the following individuals is INCORRECTLY associated with the industry he helped to found?
Henry Bessemer – railroads
Which of the following groups received the greatest rewards from industrialization?
white, native-born males
The principle of the “iron law of wages” stated that
supply and demand regulated wages.
Why did John D. Rockefeller reject competition among oil companies?
He believed that consolidation, not competition, created stronger companies.
This company became the first billion-dollar company.
U.S. Steel
After 1870, the measure of a nation’s industrial progress was determined by
the production of steel
The two transcontinental railroad lines met at
Promontory, Utah.
What was the significance of American Telephone and Telegraph?
It was the consolidation of many local phone systems into one large corporation.
What was the reason for Andrew Carnegie’s success?
He understood how to organize steel industry management.
Which of the following best describes the early American Federation of Labor?
an alliance of craft unions that tried to improve wages and working conditions
Which of the following best describes the Knights of Labor?
a federation of craft unions aimed only at improving wages and working conditions
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What was one negative effect of industrialization in the United States in the nineteenth century?
There was now a growing disparity in income between the rich and poor.
Why did the Knights of Labor fail?
It was unable to organize the workers.
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What was the significance of Thomas Edison’s laboratory at Menlo Park?
It was the first laboratory
According to social historian Stephan Thernstrom, what was the extent of American social mobility in the early industrial era?
substantial, but limited
Why didn’t early American railroads actually link different regions to each other?
They had different schedules and incompatible gauges.
The most important advances in industrialization
occurred during the last third of the nineteenth century.
Which of the following was NOT a factor in American industrial development?
industrialization of the South after the Civil War
The great strike of 1877, in which more than 100 people died, involved
railroad workers.
What was the result of Andrew Carnegie’s sale of Carnegie Steel?
J.P. Morgan combined it with other steel companies into the U.S. Steel Corporation.
The development of a national railway system
Was not completed until the early twentieth century.
Rapid rail construction after the Civil War was possible because
federal and state governments provided important incentives.
American industrial growth was concentrated in the
Northeast
What was one result of the proliferation of patents in the late nineteenth century?
Americans no longer imported most of their technology.
What is the significance of the adoption of a standard gauge system for all railroads?
It allowed trains to travel on all tracks, thus integrating the entire system.
Which two were the most important developments of the late nineteenth century?
telephone and electricity
The development of brand names, chain stores, and mail order houses
provided convenience and standardization.
As for women workers, the American Federation of Labor
either ignored or opposed them as members.
Which of the following lists industrial developments in proper chronological order?
the completion of the first transcontinental railroad, formation of the first trust, formation of U.S. Steel Corporation
By 1894, American railroads
suffered from competition and overexpansion.
What was the consequence of the formation of the Standard Oil Trust?
Other industries followed its lead and trusts became common in America.
What does it mean to say that Americans spoke a “common language of consumption” by the late nineteenth century?
Americans found a commonality in a consumer culture, in which they all could buy the same kinds of goods.
Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor
emphasized economic goals for workers.
The most significant technical innovation of the nineteenth century was
railroads
In comparison to male workers, female workers
were relegated to traditionally “feminine” jobs.
The most important development in the communications system in late nineteenth-century America was the
telephone.
The most important figure in American finance was
J. P. Morgan.
According to Herbert Gutman, industrialization transformed the “culture of work.” Which of the following best states his meaning?
The new technology often required difficult and demeaning adaptations of work patterns.
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What was a result of the Haymarket Square riot?
It weakened the national labor movement.
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