HIST 2020 Chapter 19

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Which of the following factors contributed significantly to the astonishing growth in America’s urban population between 1870 and 1900?
The migration of people from the rural areas of Europe and the United States
Which of the following describes the world economy at the turn of the twentieth century?
An industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third world tied to the industrial core by economic colonialism
What circumstances enabled U.S. industrialists to hire cheap labor from around the world in the 1870s?
Railroad expansion and low steamship fares brought many immigrants to America
After 1880, most new immigrants to America originated from
eastern and southern Europe.
Which of the following describes the majority of immigrants’ lifestyles in the United States after 1900?
They lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land
How did the process of mechanization affect U.S. industrialists’ hiring and employment practices in the late nineteenth century?
It allowed industrialists to replace skilled laborers with lower-paid, unskilled immigrant laborers
The racism directed at ethnic immigrant groups in America in the late nineteenth century
was the product of the perception that ethnic and religious differences were racial characteristics.
Some established immigrant groups viewed more recent immigrants as
not being a part of the white race.
In late-nineteenth-century American cities,
Asian immigrants on the West Coast were made economic scapegoats.
Congress approved a literacy test for immigrants in 1896
as a means of limiting the influx of uneducated people into the country.
As middle- and upper-class urbanites moved to new areas of their cities, poor city dwellers
stayed in the neighborhoods near the factories where they worked.
What did Jacob Riis achieve with his best-selling How the Other Half Lives (1890)?
He forced middle-class Americans to acknowledge the degraded reality of the poor.
Which group constituted the backbone of the American labor force throughout the nineteenth century?
Common laborers
Working as a skilled craftsman in America in the late nineteenth century
did not ensure financial security
Employers sought to limit the control of skilled workers on the shop floor in the late nineteenth century
by replacing people with machines
Which of the following developments changed the U.S. garment industry in the 1850s?
Independent tailors were replaced by sweatshop workers.
Which of the following describes the economic survival of the nineteenth-century American working-class family?
A family’s survival depended on the employment of every family member.
How did the percentage of children under age fifteen working in the paid labor force in the United States change during the years leading up to World War I?
The percentage of children working increased decade by decade.
How did business expansion and consolidation affect the social structure in the late nineteenth century United States?
a new class of white men salaried managers emerged
The direction of corporate goals and policies in the late nineteenth century was increasingly shaped by
managers and executives
The advent of the adding machine, typewriter, and cash register had the greatest impact on
literate white women
Most white native-born women who worked at the end of the nineteenth century held
clerical jobs in offices
What developed as a result of the opening of department stores in the late nineteenth century United States?
a new consumer culture
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was
a spontaneous and unorganized event
What was the main lesson learned by workers from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
They lacked power individually, but might gain it through a union
The Knights of Labor was
the first mass organization for American workers
During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for
public ownership of the railroads, an income tax, and equal pay for women.
Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,
fought for higher pay and better working conditions for skilled labor.
The Haymarket affair of 1886
began as a rally of laborers organized by radicals.
Which of the following was an outcome of the Haymarket affair?
Skilled workers turned toward the American Federation of Labor.
Throughout much of the nineteenth century, middle-class American women were confined by a cultural ideology that dictated that they
exist within the private sphere of the household.
Working-class courtship rituals in urban, industrial America in the late nineteenth century
consisted of informal meetings at dance halls and other commercial settings
Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passion for
baseball
What occurrence facilitated the emergence of the modern skyscraper emerged in the 1890s?
the advent of structural steel
The “Chicago school” of the late nineteenth century was
a skilled group of architects who made commercial architecture a new art form.
The public school system in American cities provided
free tuition and open access to all school-aged children
Which of the following describes the advantages of American city life in the 1890s?
The amenities were not easily available to the poor residents of cities.
In the post-Civil War United States, a “city boss” was
a professional politician who provided public works and social services for new residents.
By the turn of the twentieth century, most big-city governments were run
by compromise and the accommodation of various powerful political forces.
How did Detroit’s reform mayor Hazen Pingree achieve political success in the 1890s?
He followed the city bosses’ model of providing public works and social reform.
Categories: History