History THE 60s-70s Study guide

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Vietnamization
A policy of the Richard Nixon administration in which they withdrew 540,000 troops in response to the tet offensive. It also trained and equipped the South Vietnam forces to help them with the troop withdrawal.
Nixon Doctrine
it stated that the US would assist in the defense and developments of allies and friends but would not undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world. In other words: we will not fight your battles for you.
My Lai massacre
the massacre of 350+ and unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968 by the U.S. army soldiers. (gang-rape and mutilation of women was involved)…rough
Cambodian Campaign
series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) during the Vietnam War. The objective was to kill the vietcong hiding there.
Kent state killings
Occurred on May 4th, 1970. Most of the students murdered were protesting the Cambodian campaign, but some were just walking around. This incident killed four students and wounded 9 others. The backlash to this was hundreds of universities, colleges, and highschools closed due to a student strike of over four million.
the 26th amendment
prohibits the state and the federal government from setting a voting age higher than 18. It was added due to student activism against Vietnam. July 1st, 1971(Nixon’s presidency)
Pentagon papers
the history of the US involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were discovered and released by Daniel Ellsberg, and posted in the Times. The papers concluded that the LBJ administration had lied to the public and congress especially about the gulf on Tonkin incident.
Silent majority
an unspecified large majority of people ina country or group who do not express their opinions publicly. In this case regarding the Richard Nixon era where he used it to talk to the people who were with him and were being drowned out by the media.
American Independent Party
a far right political party established in 1967. Most notable for the nomination of George Wallace who won five states in the 1968 election and was very racist.
ABM treaty
a treaty between the US and the soviet union on the limitation of ABM systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons, 1972
SALT
Strategic arms limitation talks, negotiations between the US and the Soviet Union. Led to START and the ABM treaty
MIRVs
a ballistic missile containing several warheads, each capable of hitting one of a group of targets.
Southern strategy
a republican strategy of electing candidates in the South by appealing to racism. Adopted under Nixon and Goldwater
Watergate scandal
Under the Nixon administration there was a break-in to the democratic national committee headquarters in D.C. Nixon tried to cover up his involvement but was futile and the due to this incident Nixon stepped down from President in 1974
CREEP
Committee for the Re-Election of the President, mocked by this acronym for its disgraceful actions. Money laundering, slush funds, and its direct involvement with the Watergate Scandal.
enemies list
Nixon’s list of major political opponents, the list became public knowledge when John dean mentioned it to the watergate committee.
Roe v. Wade
The supreme court ruling that allowed women to have the decision to get abortions. 1973
Saturday Night Massacre
the term given by political commentators to Nixon for his executive dismissal of Archibald Cox and the resignations of Elliot richardson and William Ruckelshaus
War powers act
1973- a federal law intended to check the president’s power because of the somewhat dictorial way the presidents in the last decade acted.
Energy crisis
a period in which the economies of the major industrial countries of the world were heavily affected by petroleum shortage.
OPEC
Organization for petroleum Exporting Countries. It is an oil cartel whose mission is to coordinate the policies of the oil producing countries.
détente
the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of the geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States which began in 1969.
Philadelphia Plan
required construction-trade unions working on the federal pay roll to establish
Executive privilege
Nixon’s way of trying to conceal the recordings of him to the authorities because there was “sensitive information” in them and the president has the executive privilege to withhold them.
judicial activism
An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)
Black Power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Civil disobedience
peacefully disobeying the law
Spiro Agnew
Nixon’s vice-president resigned due to tax evasion charges
Daniel Ellsberg
Released the pentagon papers in 1971
Henry Kissinger
Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America. Responsible for the détente
Earl Warren
14th US Chief Justice, ended school segregation and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school-sponsored prayer, and requiring
Warren Berger
appointed in 1971 to be the chief justice. Nixon wanted someone who would strictly interpret the Constitution. Ironically, the court under him made very liberal rulings. Roe V. Wade (abortion ruling)
George Mcgovern
Ran against Nixon in 68′. He was a hardcore dove who wanted to end the war within 2 years of the election
Sam Ervin
North Carolina Senator who conducted the Watergate hearings. His thorough investigation led Nixon to resign.
John Dean
He testified against Nixon as well as other cabinet members in the Watergate hearings. His testimony helped led to the removal of several White House officials and the resignation of Nixon. Before his testimony he had been a White House lawyer.
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success.
The New Frontier
Made by JFK with hopes to increase aid to education, provide health insurance to the elderly, created department of Urban Affairs and helped migrate workers
Peace corps
volunteer program run by the government. Started by JFK in 1961.
Vienna summit
a meeting held in 1961, between Kennedy and Khrushchev. The leaders of the two superpowers of the cold war era discussed numerous issues. Kennedy admitted that Khrushchev “beat him” during the meeting and that Kennedy’s reputation was not upheld. This may have subsequently led to the cuban missile crisis
Trade Expansion Act
October, 1962 – The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
Viet Cong
A Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Alliance for progress
initiated by JFK in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between U.S. and latin America.
Bay of pigs
Invasion of cuba by the CIA to try and overthrow Fidel Castro. Influenced by Eisenhower.
SNCC
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement.
Affirmative action
refers to policies that take factors including “race, color, religion, sex, or national origin” into consideration in order to benefit of an underrepresented group.
War on Poverty
Johnson’s legislation in response to the 19% poverty rate in America. Under Johnson the poverty rate decreased to around 11%
Great society
set of domestic programs in the US announced by LBJ. The two major goals of the great society were
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
president can take all necessary measures to rebel armed attacks against US and prevent further aggression
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Cuban Missile Crisis
a 13 day confrontation in October 1962 between the Soviet union and cuba on one side and the U.S. on the other. It was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. Because the Soviet Union was behind in the arms race they chose to store their missiles in Cuba because thats the only place they could reach the U.S. from. Fidel Castro welcomed this idea with open arms due to the fact that he was looking for a way to defend himself against the U.S. After reconnaissance photographs revealed this plan President Kennedy imposed a naval quarantine of around Cuba. Tensions began to ease october 28 when Khrushchev dismantled the missiles and returned them to the Soviet Union.
Nuclear test-ban treaty
Over 50 nuclear explosions were registered between 16 July 1945, when the first nuclear explosive test was conducted by the United States at White Sands Missile Range near Alamogordo, New Mexico, and 31 December 1953. Prime Minister Nehru of India voiced the heightened international concern in 1954, when he proposed the elimination of all nuclear test explosions worldwide. However, within the context of the Cold War, skepticism about the capability to verify compliance with a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty posed a major obstacle to any agreement.
March on Washington
In August 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. led 200,000 black and white demonstrators on a peaceful “March on Washington” in support of the proposed new Civil rights bill: Voter education project
Woodstock
a music festival, billed as “An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music”. Became a center for hippies who expressed their ideas about political and social matters. They were against the war and mostly for the civil rights movement.
Greensboro sit-in
were a series of nonviolent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworth’s department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Freedom Summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi, which had historically excluded most blacks from voting.
Twenty-fourth amendment
prohibits congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was instated in 1962
Voting Rights act of 1965
prohibits discrimination in voting
operation rolling thunder
the title of a gradual and sustained 2nd US air division. The goal of the operation wad to boost the sagging morale of the saigon regime in the republic of Vietnam, persuade North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist in South Vietnam without actually going into the north, destroy the north’s recourses, and to cease the flow of troops into south vietnam. It was one of the most effective air defenses ever faced by the US
Rachel Carson
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
Gerald Ford
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
Tet offensive
a campaign of surprise attacks by the Viet Cong. One of the largest battles during the war
Counterculture
As the 1960s progressed, widespread tensions developed in U.S. society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, human sexuality, women’s rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream. New cultural forms emerged, including the pop music of the British band the Beatles and the concurrent rise of hippie culture, which led to the rapid evolution of a youth subculture that emphasized change and experimentation. In addition to the Beatles, many songwriters, singers and musical groups from the United Kingdom and the U.S. came to impact the counterculture movement.
operation head start
a program by the Us air force where bombers were launched from Loring Air Force Base and loitered off of the coast of western Greenland and eastern canada
Medicare
(LBJ) 1965 , a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
Flexible response
a defense strategy implemented by JFK which calls for mutual deterrence as a strategic levels giving the US the ability to respond to aggression across the spectrum of warfare
Nation of Islam
A group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Peaceful Coexistence
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Credibility Gap
A lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc. during the LBJ administration and mostly caused by the tet offensive
Watts
Detroit race riots,Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit: July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
Immigration Act
abolished the national origins quota system
Categories: History