AP World History- Medieval Europe

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Middle Ages
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
Dark Ages
First 500 years of Midieval Europe. The name was given due to a lack of cultural, societal, intellectual, political and economic progress
Germanic Tribes
The groups of invaders who took over the Western Roman Empire (Saxons, angels, Goths, Vandals)
Group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis. First kingdom to convert to Christianity.
King Clovis
Early Frankish king who converted Franks to Christianity. He allowed the establishment of Frankish kingdom and hihs capitol was in Paris.
Battle of Tours
Battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe
Charles Martel’s son. First king to have the pope’s blessing creating a link between European and Roman Empires.
Built the first real empire in Europe since Rome and is the King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor. Brought back centralized government and Rome prestige. Had a main focus on promoting education and religion
Treaty of Verdum
Charlemange’s grandsons created this. They split Charlemagne’s empire, Carolingians Empire, into 3 kingdoms
A hierarchy based on landownership. Europeans turned yo feudalism for protection from Vikings.
A piece of land held under the feudal system. Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
The self-sufficient fiefs with everyone living on them
Code of Chivalry
This reinforced idea of women as weak where some women in towns had few privelages and practiced in some trade.
Moldboard Plow
Plow invented during the Middle Ages to improve farming effeciency
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests. Trained people to specialize in a specific job. they formed within cities to set standards and prices on goods.
Great Schism
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
William the Conqueror
He invaded England in 1066, defeated Harold, Saxon King, at the battle of Hastings, and established himself as sole ruler of England creating a strong,centralized monarchy.
First Crusade
Launched by Pope Urban II, and is considered successful because they recaptured Jerusalem and the Holy Land, which freed Christians from Muslims.
Second Crusade
In effort to stem the Muslim resurgence, but unsuccessful. Jerusalem was taken back by Saladin (Muslims)
Third Crusade
Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin. Muslims kept city but Christians could pilgrimage to it freely
Fourth Crusade
Crusade which diverted into a battle for Constantinople and failed to recapture Jerusalem. But sacked Constantinople, causing damage to Byzantine Empire.
Magna Carta
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of King John
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English. A peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year’s war
The controversy that arose when Henry IV (Holy Roman Empire) tried to name men to church offices. Pope Gregory VII excommunicated him for this act and reaffirmed the political power of the Catholic Church.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain. Pushed to southern Spain then finally kicked out by Ferdinand and Isabella
Followed by the Roman Empire which had rectangular buildings with dome tops, thick walls, small windows, and blocky builds
Beggining to appear with tall slender spires, ornate carvings, stained-glass windows, and flying buttresses. It reflected Muslim design.
Bubonic Plaugue
Disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It eventually killed one out of every third person in the population and helped end Feudalism.
Categories: Medieval