Chapter 5 Ancient and Medieval history Rome

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Etruscans
The civilization that most influenced early Rome. Settled north of Rome in Etruria. The dominant cultural and economic force in a number of areas in the emergence of Rome. They were invaded by the celts from Gaul and then conquered by the Romans. They brought urbanization to northern and central Italy.
Consuls
The chief executive officers of the Roman Republic. Two were chosen annually to administer the government and lead army in battle.
Praetors
A Roman executive official responsible for the administration of the law
Imperium
In the Roman Republic, the right to command troops that belonged to the chief executive officers (consuls and praetors). A military commander was known as an imperator. In the Roman Empire the title of imperator (emperor) came to be used for the ruler.
Quaestors
Roman officials responsible for the administration of financial affairs.
Aediles
Roman officials who supervises the public games and grain supply of the city of Rome.
Patricians
Great land owners who became the ruling class in the Roman Republic
Cincinnatus
a Roman aristocrat and statesman whose service as consul and dictator made him a model of civic virtue.
Appian Way
one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy.
Hastati
were a class of infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as spearmen, and later as swordsmen. These soldiers were the staple unit after Rome threw off the Etruscan rule.
Hannibal
was a Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Paterfamilias
Male head of the family, whose responsibility it was to ensure that religious obligate rations were properly fulfilled among most things.
Latifundia
Large landed estates in the Roman Empire (almost always worked by slaves) that marked an uprising of new upper class (and slave culture) and social instability which lead to people in local area become easily manipulated.
Plautus
was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are the earliest works in Latin literature to have survived in their entirety.
Cicero
As a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist. Is very critical of Caesar in his letter to Atticus.
The Gracchi
The efforts of Tiberius Gracchus, were continued by his brother Gaius, an elected tribune. Gaius, too, pushed for the distribution of land to displace farmers. But he broadened his reform program. What happened: the attempts of the Gracchus brothers to bring reform had opened the door more instability and further violence.
Marius
A series of military disasters gave rise to a fresh outburst of popular anger against the old leaders of the senate. Military defeats in Africa, encouraged the General to run for the consulship under the “win the war” campaign. In raising a new army, he initiated military reforms that proved to have drastic consequences. He had created a new system of military recruitment that placed much power in the hands of individual generals.
Sulla
was the next general to take advantage of the new military system. The senate ha placed him in charge of a war in Asia Minor, but the council of the plebs to transfer command of this war to Marius, a civil war ensued. He won and seized Rome itself in 82 B.C.E. He forced the senate to grant him the title of dictator to “reconstitute the Republic.” In 79 B.C.E., believing that he had restored the traditional Republic governed by a powerful senate, he retired. But his real legacy was quite different from what he had intended.
Caesar
had been a spokesperson for the populares from the beginning of his political career and had a military command in Spain. He conquered Gaul, achieving wealth and fame. he marched on Rome and started a civil war between his forces and those of Pompey and his allies. He soon became dictator for life. His assassination by some rebellious senators split the power of Rome between Antony and Octavian.
Battle of Actium
was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian wins.
Categories: Medieval