English Medieval History background

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English Language
an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
Germanic Tribes which contributed to the formation of Old English
King Egbert
first king to call Britannia, England or ” land of the Angles”
Anglo-Saxon words in Modern English
Bedd, Candel, Eorth, Froendscipe, Mann, Moder, and Waeter
Middle English
Transitional period between Anglo-Saxon and modern English. 1066-1500. Chaucer is a good example of this period’s work.
Normans
a member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066
William, Duke of Normandy
king of england; defeated king harold to earn crown; made noble swear oath making him sole ruler; gave fiefs to knights (land); developed taxation & royal courts
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
French Language
Germanic language spoken in France and in the English courts after the Norman conquest
French words in Modern English
Sir, Madam, Courtesy, Honor, Chivalry, Dine, Table, Roast, Court, Royal
Edward the Confessor
chosen as king by the Anglo-Saxon nobles after the Danish line died out…he died childless and the thrown was take by Duke William of Normandy, a distant relative, and later by his brother in law Harold of Wessex
Baron
a nobleman; a lord
Vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
Henry Plantagenet ( Henry II)
Founded the Royal house of Plantagenet and a written record as one of England’s ablest kings
Thomas Becket
the archbishop of Canterbury, close friend of Henry who later opposed his attempt to bring Church/clergy into royal court system. Murdered by Henry’s knights, then declared a saint by the Church
Canterbury
Center of the Christian church in England, as established by Augustine
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Richard I
son of Henry II and King of England from 1189 to 1199
King John
youngest son of Henry II
Lancasters, Yorks, and Tudors
Lancasters and Yorks were competing houses in the line for the throne, both were ended when Henry IV took over power and created the Tudor house
War of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Feudalism
A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Geoffrey Chaucer
Englishman who wrote the Canterbury tales, which were narrative poems about pilgrims on their way to Canterbury
Medieval Dramas
The Church sponsored these plays as part of religious services, these were called miracle or mystery plays
Johann Gutenburg
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type
William Caxton
English printer who in 1474 printed the first book in English (1422-1491) one of his printing projects included Geoffrey Chaucer’s works
The Canterbury tales
A group of travelers making a pilgrimage to Canterbury tell each other stories that they are by turns crude, hilarious, creepy, gruesome, and pious.
Medieval Romances
a story about the adventures of knights and the love between a knight and a lady
the Death of Arthur
the collected tales of Sir Thomas Malory about King Arthur
Lyre
One of the most ancient of stringed instruments of the harp class.
Robin Hood
attacked and punished those who violated the social system and law. Robin and his merry men performed acts to reattribute justice. He symbolized the deep resentment of aristocratic corruption and abuse. He represented struggle against tyranny and oppression. (400)
Categories: Medieval