Medieval History Ch. 13 Review
At the beginning of the Middle Ages (Fall of the Roman Empire), what major changes were occurring in Europe?
-disruption of trade
-downfall of cities
Which Frankish King is considered to be the strongest ruler form the Merovinigian Dynasty of rulers?
What religion did Clovis and 3,000 of his men convert to?
These were religious communities built by the church.
Under which pope did the church become secular?
a worldly power involved in politics
What were two of Charles Martel’s major accomplishments?
-Extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south and east
-Stopped Muslim spread (Battle of Tours)
Pepin the Short is the first ruler of which dynasty of rulers?
What happened to Charlemagne on Christmas of 800 AD? Why?
Pope Leo II crowns him Holy Roman Emperor; he was considered defender of Christianity by the pope
What region did the Vikings come from?
Scandanavia (Northern Europe)
Why was it necessary for the Vikings to leave their homeland to invade other regions?
they lacked resources
What are Charlemagne’s major accomplishments?
1. Conquered Western Europe
2. First Holy Roman Emperor
3. Encouraged learning
4. Spread and protected Christianity
Describe the Magyars who invaded Europe during the Middle Ages.
a group of nomadic people; great horsemen; from Hungary; overran Northern Italy and as far west as Rhineland and Burgundy
Describe the Muslims who invaded Europe during the Middle Ages.
expert sea farers
Who is at each level of the Feudal Pyramid?
the lord’s estate
What two inventions helped increase the popularity of warfare on horseback?
leather saddles and stirrups
In the Feudal system, what was a knight’s main obligation? Who was he supposed to be devoted to?
a knight must fight bravely for his 3 masters:
his feudal lord
his heavenly Lord
his chosen lady
How much combat would a knight actually participate in during a typical year?
What were three stages of knighthood? (in order)
List at least six popular Medieval castle and siege weapons?
crossbows, siege tower, battering ram, mangonel, trebuchet, manlet
How did the Treaty of Verdun affect Europe?
it ended the civil war and split Europe into 3 sections: Western, Central and Eastern
What political, economic, and social system dominated Europe during the Middle Ages?
How were the duties of a noblewoman and a peasant woman different?
Noblewoman: could inherit an estate from her husband; confined to activities in the home or covent. They held little property
Peasant woman: did a lot of labor around the home and in the fields, bore children, took care of family
Who were the clergy?
bishops and priests
Why did so many people put their faith and trust in the priests and Christian Church during this time?
They served as the main contact with the church
What are sacraments?
important religious ceremonies
What was canon law?
Who did Pope Leo III crown emperor in 800?
Known as ________________, he was the most effective ruler of Medieval Germany.
Otto the Great
Whose policies did Otto the Great try to copy during his reign?
What is lay investiture? Who banned lay investiture in 1075?
kings and nobles appointed church officials; Pope Gregory VII
What issue did the Concordat of Worms settle?
Explain the relationship between the Church and Medieval Kings.
The church and kings continued to fight for power for hundreds of years to follow Fredrick’s battle