Medieval History Unit 2

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Alfred the Great (849-899)
the first king of the “Anglo-Saxons”
Allah
the divine name in Islam
Angles
Germanic tribe that invaded Britain in the 5th century from whom the name “England” comes
Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)
the archbishop who defended realism and the satisfaction view of the atonement
The Battle of Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066)
the decisive battle in the Norman Conquest
The Battle of Tours (732)
the battle that stopped the Muslim advance into France
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
an abbot and reformer who helped launch the Second Crusade
Boniface (d.754)
established Christianity in Germany
Byzantium
the name of the city that would become Constantinople
Celts
the name of the only Gallic people left by the 1st century, those in Ireland
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (742-814)
the greatest king in the Carolingian Dynasty of the Franks
Charles Martel (688-741)
the victorious leader of the Franks over the Muslims at the Battle of Tours
The Children’s Crusade
30,000 children attempted to convert Muslims in the Holy Land in 1212
chivalry
the virtue of knighthood: including valor and courtesy toward women
Cordoba
the Muslim kingdom in medieval Spain
The Crusades
wars between Europeans and Muslims from the High to Late Middle Ages
Eastern Orthodox Church
the dominant physical church structure in Russia and Eastern Europe
El Cid (1043-1099)
led the Spanish defeat of the Moors
Eric the Red (950-1003)
Leif Ericsson’s father who founded the first Norse settlement in Greenland
Feudalism
the medieval system of life where everyone belonged to a piece of land
fief
the fee pledged to the vassal by the lord
Frederick Barbarossa, or Frederick I (1122-1190)
the German king of the Holy Roman Empire who drowned in the 3rd Crusade
Genghis Khan (1162-1227)
the founder of the Mongol Empire
Henry IV
the king of the Holy Roman Empire who attempted to depose the pope
Hildebrand, or Pope Gregory VII (1028-1085)
the pope who excommunicated the king of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
the empire that declared itself the successor the the Roman Empire
Iconoclast Controversy
the fight over cleansing the church of the image in the 8th and 9th centuries
investiture
the appointment of church leaders by the king
Islam
the religion of Mohammed, meaning “submission”
John of Salisbury (1120-1180)
applied realism to classical education and the rule of law
knight
a military servant of the king or lard of a manor
Koran
the book that Muslims believe is revealed by Allah
Leif Ericsson (970-1020)
the Viking who landed on American shores
lord
the one who holds the title to the land
manor
the plot of land in the feudal system
Mecca
the birthplace of Mohammed and most revered city in Islam
Medina
the burial place of Mohammed and 2nd most revered city in Islam
Mohammed
the founder of Islam
monastery
the place where the monks would live
monk
an individual attempting the be holy by escaping from the temptations of the world
Moors
the medieval Muslim people of northwest Africa and southern Spain
Muslim
an adherent to Islam, meaning “one who submits”
The Norman Conquest
1066
Normans
descendants of Danish Vikings settled on the coast of France
Otto I, or “Otto The Great” (912-973)
the first king of the Holy Roman Empire
Pepin the Short (714-768)
the first king in the Carolingian Dynasty of the Franks
pilgrimage
a journey to a place of sacred significance
relic
a religious object preserved for veneration
Roman Catholic Church
the dominant physical church structure throughout the medieval and modern West
Saxons
Germanic tribes that invaded Britain in the 5th centure
serf
the lowest class on the manor
Shariah
Islamic law over all things
Slavs
the people group stretching from central Europe to central Asia
Song Dynasty of China
960-1279
Sui Dynasty of China
589-618
Tang Dynasty of China
618-906
Ummah
a Muslim community
Urban II
the pope who launched the First Crusade in 1096
vassal
one who pledges some service to the lord in exchange for land
Vikings
the northernmost, seafaring Germanic people
Vladimir I (958-1015)
consolidated and brought Christianity to what is now modern-day Russia
Wenceslas (907-935)
the young Duke who tried to bring Christian values to Bohemia
William the Conqueror (1028-1087)
the Duke of Normandy and conqueror of England
Categories: Medieval