a heavy wood plow with an iron plowshare
In medieval Europe, an agriculture estate that a lord ran and peasants worked
a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rent, and be subjects to the lord’s control
the middle class, including merchants, industrialist, and professional people
a wealthy and powerful land owner
a manner of accomplishing a task using technical process, methods, or knowledge
How did new farming methods benefit Europe in the Middle Ages?
It increased the growth of farming, there was less human, they were able to harness the power of the wind to run things like mills. This increased the population from 38 million to 74 million in short amount of time.
What factors led to population growth in the High Middle Ages?
The carruca led to the growth of farming villages. There was peace and health and people started to have children. Climate change got warmer and crops grew better. Technology advanced, Mills were made.
What was life like for nobles and peasant under the economic system of manorialism?
Nobles lives consisted of them training and perusing in the art of war. Peasant or serfs if offered they would work for the nobles and lords mostly in fields, and would work for about 3 days of the week.
What is the difference between peasants and serfs?
A peasant lived a simple life in cottage made of week materials and worked for themselves, unlike a serf who was of service to a lord/noble and was offered protection with better living conditions.
How were serfs legally bound to the land?
The serfs had to give labor services, because in return they also get benefits from being subjects to their lard’s control.
How did the revival of trade result in a commercial revolution during the Middle Ages?
Trade became a more popular and common thing, money and the economies emerged and people started to trade and invest in it for profit.
Why were the towns of Flander busy trading centers?
Northern Europe bought many trades and slowly a money economy came and gold and silver coins came. Flander had a great town of woolen cloth.
What spurred the growth of cities in the Middle Ages?
merchants began to settle in the old Roman cities. They were followed by crafts people or Artisans
What role did guilds play i the economic life of towns and cities?
They were guides for almost every craft. Also directed almost every aspect of the production for the quality of the articles too.
political and social order that developed during the Middle ages when royal govt. were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
under feudalism, a member of the heavily armored cavalry
under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
under feudalism: the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal
in the middle ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
a binding agreement between two or more people or parties
What internal and external factors after Charlemagne’s death weakened kingdoms in Europe?
The land was divided into 3 parts. Western Europe was set back by a wave of invasions by the Norsemen of Scandinavia.
Why were Vikings able to expand throughout Europe?
They had ships that could sail and that could take 50 men.
Why did the collapse of govts. lead to the new political and social order known as feudalism?
The people saw that they needed a system and a lord to protect them all. In return the lord will get loyalty and service.
What was the feudal contract? What did the contract require?
A set of unwritten rules. The lord has to give the vassal land and protect him in court by taking his side. The vassal had to appear at the lord’s side in court to give advice.
Draw a diagram of how European feudal society was structured?
Kings-Lords/Vassals-Knights/Vassals-Peasants/serfs(draw in pyramid)
Why was land the most important gift a lord could give to a vassal?
Land was how everyone earned their rank if you have land you grant to lower positions.
List 3 features of chivalry:
Woman remained control under men/ the land of a castle often took control/ women were suppose to be sub servant by often they advised.