Middle Ages – World History

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Baptism
A sacrament in the medieval church – babies are sprinkled with water to show that they have entered the church
Black Death
Major epidemic in the mid 1300s. Probably the bubonic plague. Spread especially by traders. Kills 1/3-1/2 of the medieval Europe population.
Byzantine Empire
The remains of the Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople.
Canon Law
Church law
Charlemagne
First to be crowned “Holy Roman Emperor” in AD 800. Very tall. Expanded Empire. Valued Education.
Charles Martel
“The Hammer,” held the role of majordomo (mayor of the palace). Won the Battle of Tours to hold of Moorish invaders.
Children’s Crusade
When children decided to go on a crusade to liberate Jerusalem from the Muslims. Most are killed or sold into slavery.
Chivalry
Code of conduct that all knights are supposed to follow. Knights are supposed to honor and serve their heavenly lord (God), feudal lord, and their chosen lady. They are supposed to defend the weak and protect the church.
Clovis
First Frankish King to convert to Christianity
Communion/Eucharist
A sacrament in the medieval catholic church – involves a ceremony of eating bread and drinking wine.
Crusades
A series of battles launched by the pope and European kings to reclaim the Holy Land (Jerusalem and surroundings) from the Muslims
Excommuncation
When a heretic is thrown out of the medieval catholic church, effectively condemning them to hell
Fall of the Roman Empire (what happens)
Invasion by barbarians, loss of trade, ruralization of the population, etc.
Fealty
Loyalty sworn to your feudal lord (in exchange for land).
Feudalism
A political system in the Middle Ages where land is traded for fealty (loyalty and protection)
Fief
The land given from a lord to a vassal
Germanic Tribes (and how they work)
Oral tradition, chief provides for everyone, no written language, personal loyalty
Interdict
Cutting off an entire region from the sacraments and the church – a powerful weapon used by popes against kings
Jerusalem
The city that was the goal of most of the Crusades
Joan of Arc
Woman general who led the French to victory in the Hundred Year’s War, later burned at the stake for heresy.
King
Political leader, conflicts with the pope
Knight
Armed horsemen of the middle ages.
Lord
A person in the feudal system that gives land to a vassal
Manor
The place where most serfs lived – consists of fields, a manor house, a church, and various houses
Monastery
Home of monks in the middle ages
Monk
A man who dedicates his life to the church and lives in a community with others who believe the same thing – usually dedicates himself to chastity, charity and obedience
Moors
Muslims who lived in Spain – they were driven out of Spain in the Reconquista
Pope
The head of the Roman Catholic Church – resides in the Vatican
Reconquista
The reconquest of Spain by Spanish Christians who drove out the Muslim Moors by 1492
Sacrament
A means of receiving grace in Christianity – there were 7 in the middle ages including baptism and communion.
Scandinavia
Homeland of the Vikings
Secular
Another word for worldly or non-religious
Serf
A peasant in the middle ages – they lived on manors and were typically farmers
Spanish Inquisition
When Spanish Christian officials tried to make sure that everyone in Spain was Christian – tried potential heretics and tried to convert them
Tithe
A religious tax in the Christian Church – 10% of income
Tournament
Knights would participate in these to hone their skills
Vassal
Someone who receives land from a lord
Vikings
Group of people from Scandinavia best know for their raids of coastal towns and monasteries
When were the middle ages?
500-1500 AD
Categories: Medieval