Why was the First Crusade launched? Glossary- A level Medieval History

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Plenary indulgence
All sins forgiven – offered by Urban if you went on the First Crusade
Papal Reform Movement
A set of reforms made by the Papacy (particularly Gregory the VII) in 11th century Europe – More power, free from interference from kings. (Peace of God movement, Investiture contest.)
Reconquista
War between Muslims and Christens in Spain. First combination of Military action and Religious purpose – Holy War.
Pilgrimage
Religious journey to a Holy place. Very popular in the 11th century – Lots of violence, terrified of sin etc… (Jerusalem – most Holy place on Earth.)
Urban II
Pope from 1088-1099, called for the First Crusade (mainly to extend his papal power)
Clermont
Urban made his speech at Clermont in 1095 calling for the First Crusade. Made after Alexius appeal at Piacenza.
Investiture Contest
Conflict between Popes and Kings on power over the Church – Who gets to appoint Bishops etc… Part of the Papal Reform Movement.
Secular
Anything non religious. E.g. Kings, materialism…
Peace of God movement
Movement to stop Christians fighting against each other. (No fighting on certain days etc.) Extension of Papal power into the Secular world. Causes problems for the Knights as they now lack a purpose. Part of the Papal Reform Movement.
Christendom
Christian territories in the world
Byzantine Empire
Greek Orthodox Christians in Asia Minor, inheritors of the Roman Empire. Have become a ‘Christian Buffer’ between the Muslims in the East and the Christians in Europe
Schism of 1054
Byzantines don’t recognise the Pope as the head of Christianity. Pope then excommunicates the whole of the Byzantine Empire and places them under a schism. Urban’s response to Alexius, extends his authority over the Byzantines and somewhat repairs the division.
Excommunication
Formally exiled from the Church. Go to Hell when you die, no other Christian is meant to have dealings with you.
Caliph
Religious ruler over Muslim territory – Pope-King
Sultan
Appointed by Caliphs, as a more temporal, secular ruler to rule on the Caliphs behalf.
Fatimids
Shia Muslims, primarily found in Egypt
Abbasid
Sunni Muslims, Primarily found in Bagdad
Seljuks
Sunni Muslims, Primarily found in Turkey, pushing West, taking the fight to the Byzantine.
Battle of Manzikert
Battle in Manzikert in 1071, between the Seljuks and the Byzantines. Seljuks take the Byzantine emperor, Romanus. Ties into Alexius’ appeal, lost knights and territory after the battle.
Sunni
Dominant branch of Islam. Bagdad, Aleppo etc
Shia
Opposing branch of Islam. Egypt, Jerusalem etc
Ismali
Subset of Shia Islam. Assasins are Ismali.
Bohemond
Led a contingent on the First Crusade. Norman, good example of primogeniture (Just wants land, doesn’t continue to Jerusalem.)
Alexius Comnenus
Byzantine Emperor that requests assistance from Urban
Raymond of St Giles (Count of Toulouse)
Leader of a contingent in the Crusade, took Jerusalem, then returned home.
Adhemar of le Puy
Papal legate of the Pope on the Crusade
Primogeniture
New idea that the first born son inherits everything
Frereche
Alternative to primogeniture, estate remains intact and all sons communally share the estate.
Categories: Medieval