World History Chapter 8 Test, History Chapter 8: Medieval Europe

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Clovis
became the head of the Frankish tribe in northern Gaul, defeated other Frankish tribes and was named “King of the Franks”
Franks
the most powerful Germanic people; established many independent kingdoms in Gaul
Merovinigan House
the royal family descending from Clovis named Merovech
the king’s sons
the do-nothing kings
the mayor of the palace
Who held real power behind the throne?
Pepin II
became mayor of one of the stronger Frankish states; defeated rival mayors and united all the Frankish territories
Charles Martel
son of Pepin II; won his fame by stopping the advancement of Muslims at the Battle of Tours; also called “The Hammer”
Lombards
a Germanic people who moved through northern Italy and invaded central Italy and threatened Rome; defeated by Pepin
Donation of Pepin
when the Pope defeated the Lombards and gave the Lombard’s land to the Pope
Charlemagne
the greatest Carolingian king, helped the Frankish kingdom reach its peak, rescued Rome, also called “Charles the Great”
he founded the Holy Roman Empire and helped the Frankish kingdom reach its peak, preserved ancient manuscripts
Why is Charlemagne called “Charles the Great”
Treaty of Verdun
a treaty that split Charlemagne’s empire into three separate kingdoms; given to Louis the Pious’s sons
Magyars
a groups of Asiatic nomads, who later became the Hungarians; ravaged the eastern borders of the empire
Vikings
the most feared invaders, AKA Norsemen, skilled warriors and seamen; plundered villages and towns all over Europe
feudalism
a political system that where local rulers offered protection in return for services
lord
landholding nobles; directly under the king
fief
nobles provided services and the government would give them land grants
vassal
the king’s servant
subinfeudation
a vassal would give portions of his land grant to gain lesser nobles to become his vassals, and he would become their lord
Homage
the ceremony where a man became a vassal and becomes eligible for a fief
investiture
after Homage, a lord will hand the vassal a clod of earth, a stick, or a lance, this symbolizes the lord giving the vassal permission to use a fief
the castle
the center of life for nobility, but also the king’s home, the jail, the armory, the treasury, the court, and seat of government
knight
a warrior, protected life and property, lived by a code of conduct called chivalry
page
the beginning of knighthood training, the children would study academics and would learn to fence and hunt
squire
in his mid-teens, the page would be promoted and he would become the personal servant of the knight
chivalry
a strict code of behavior that the knights followed
the Truce of God
this agreement forbade knights from pillaging church property and limited fighting to specific weekends
tournaments
What did knights do when they couldn’t fight?
the manor
where the majority of western European people lived; a self contained farming community controlled by lords and farmed by peasants
the lord’s residence and the village church
what two buildings dominated the manor
the village
the center of a manor
demesne
1/6 to 1/3 of the land reserved for the lord
two-field system
where the farmers would only planted crops on half the land to allow the other half to recover fertility
freemen
privileged peasants who served as manorial officials and skilled laborers
serf
a peasant or slave, worked on the lord’s demesne
week-work
where the serfs devoted two or three days a week to working for the lord
the Roman Catholic Church
the medieval church
the bishop
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
to show that the church is universal
Why was the church called “catholic”?
because he presided over the most powerful countries in the western empire and was one of few sources of stability in the West
Why did the bishop of Rome rise to power?
Leo I
bishop, persuaded Attila of the Huns to spare the city in 452; was then hailed as pope *first to be called pope*
Petrine Theory
the idea that Christ made Peter the first pope and gave him authority of all churches on earth and that the pope substitutes Christ on earth
Gregory I
greatly expanded the power of his office, he also spread many unbiblical doctrines
purgatory
a place of temporary punishment where souls must pay for their unconfessed sins
the Roman sacramental system
where the Catholic church grants sacraments that grants grace
clergy
servants/leaders of the church
laity
parishoners of the church
secular clergy
they conducted religious services, administered sacraments to the laity, and supervised the church
regular clergy
these men denounced things of the world, also monks
Benedict of Nursia
“Father of Western Monasticism”, created the Benedictine Rule
Benedictine Rule
strict rules that regulated the lives of monks
Patrick
missionary who took gospel to Ireland
Boniface
Apostle to the Germans
do nothing kings
seventh-century *Merovingian* kings who reign but did not rule; the power went reigned but did not rule; the power went to the mayor of the palace
Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Holy Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Extreme Unction
7 Sacraments of Roman Catholic Church
Rescued Rome, Extended the empire over most of Western Europe, Spread Christianity, Laid the foundation for France, Germany, and Italy
Charlemagne the great was great because?
Only stable institution during the Middle ages
Why was the Roman Catholic Church so strong?
-located in most important city of the empire
-one of the few remaining sources of authority in the west
Reasons for pope’s rise to power
Categories: Medieval