In World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Lenin’s policy from 1921 to 1928, reviving the wage system and private ownership of some factories and businesses, and abandoning grain requisitions.
Communists led by Lenin – “Bread, Peace and Land”, Bolsheviks
All factions opposed to Reds (Mensheviks, tsarist supporters, SRs, etc.)
Peasants who feared Whites would take land
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Major cause for Lenin instituting the NEP. Mutiny by previously pro-Bolshevik sailors in March at Kronstadt naval base had to be crushed with machine gun fire
First 5YP – 1928
Stalin’s plan in which the state would take control every aspect of economic life with an intent that the USSR would become industrialized. There was a very specific goal, but no specific plan.
From 1931 – 1933, over 10 million people (especially Ukrainians) died from famine that resulted from collectivization’s failure. Parents committed atrocities like killing their children and eating them in an attempt to survive.
(1930s) a result of Stalin’s Five Year Plan to modernize the Soviet Union; a showcase of Soviet achievement; was the prime location for a steel plant to challenge western rivals; thousands of forced laborers worked here in awful living conditions; water was rationed
Second 5YP – 1933
A more realistic economic plan that called for 14% increases in production per year instead of 20%. Engineering and metal-working sectors of economy increased while output of tractors trebled.
Third 5YP – 1938
This economic plan focused more on the production of luxury goods like radios and bicycles. However with an impending threat of Germany, the industrial budget decreased while defense spending increased.
Special department of secret police that ran labor camps established in 1930. The camps are also referred to as gulags.
The Stakhanovite movement during the second 5yp in 1935. named after Aleksei Stakhanov, who had mined 102 tons of coal in less than 6 hours (14 times his quota). symbol for someone who worked really hard. someone for workers to be inspired by and look up to.
Stalin’s Purges 1933 -(1936-38 at height)
A systematic removal and terrorizing of colleagues and party members. Initially, party members were just removed, but by 1936, they were going through elaborate public trials and then being executed. The main targets were party members, but anyone with a relationship to any victims were in dangerous. Over 12 million people died from the camps or executions.
Kirov Murder/Show Trial of 1936
In December 1934, party secretary, Kirov was murdered. It is suggested that Stalin instructed for this murder, but then used it to move against his potential enemies by accusing many ‘Trotskyites and Leftists’. Many were arrested and shot. In August 1936, 16 party members including Kamenev and Zinoviev were put on public trial charged with Kirov’s murder. All 16 men confessed and were then executed.
Lena Gold Incident (1912)
Series of strikes/protests following awful treatment of workers
Former daily newspaper published in Mosco and distributed nationwide, the official organ of the Communist party of the USSR; founded in St. Petersburg as underground paper
Middle working classes – people with access to capital (notably the Provisional Government)
The lower or worker classes, the members of which must under capitalism sell their labor in order to earn a living
The defense of the first revolution as a real revolution that provoked important change
Scientific management of industry devised by US engineer FW Taylor
Petrograd Bread Riot
Riot on International Woman’s Day, occupied square as a result of government
“Bread, Peace, Land”
A form of democracy in which the interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests