United States History

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Soviet Union
After WWII, the ____ was a dictatorship under Joseph Stalin. It was under a Communist reign, where the state was more important than the individual. The ____ was the enemy of the United States of America until its’ collapse.
______, is in essence communism and fascism, it is where the state makes all the political, economic, military, and all other decisions for its’ people.
_____ has ranged from the Soviet Union to China, but each is different. For the Soviets, they could not worship as they pleased, own private property,or express their views freely. In fact, opposition meant death in Stalin’s Communist nation.This was totally in contrast to the United States of Americas’ ideas.
George Washington was an avid ____. In fact, he stated “”The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.” The United States stuck to the ideal of non-intervention and ____ until it witnessed England and Frances’ appeasement (giving Hitler what he desired.) Then America turned to a new idea of containment.
New Deal
This was initiated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, it was to give Americans jobs during the Great Depression.
Joseph Stalin
The leader of the Soviet Union after Lenin. He helped out the United States and Britain in WWII, making the allies. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, _____, and Winston Churchill made up the “Big Three.” After the Allies won WWII, Joseph Stalin became an enemy of the United States and Britain…and so the Cold War began (Why? The Soviet Union had different ideals than the United States (Communism v. Capitalism/ Democracy 2. The Soviet Union promised to give Eastern Europe free elections, and they never did
World War II
Allies (Soviet Union, USA, and UK) v. Axis( Italy, Germany, Japan).The axis powers lost many battles, but still refused to give up. In the end, Germany surrendered when Hitler committed suicide.Then, Italy did and Japan did after the United States bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After WWII, isolationism was replaced with containment!
Manhattan Project
This was the codename of the project that developed the atomic bomb. These atomic bombs were eventually used on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
Harry Truman
He was the 33rd President of the United States from Missouri (1945-1953). He tried to stop the spread of Communism. Also he promoted the Fair Deal (was at Potsdam). In addition, he was more hostile toward Stalin than Roosevelt had been. He was a Democrat.
Taft-Hartley Act
It was initiated under Harry Truman. This outlawed a closed shop.
Fair Deal
This was initiated after Truman was miraculously re-elected. Truman admitted it would strengthen the existing New Deal reforms and make new programs, like the national health insurance. Yet Congress wasn’t accepting of reform ideas;thus,Truman failed to win approval for most of his ___ proposals
Satellite Nations
The Eastern European Countries, such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, as well as the Eastern part of Germany became ____ under the Soviet Union (independent nation under a more powerful nation).
Cold War
A war that was never fought with the military between the United States and the Soviet Union. The tension between the two nations was extremely high at some points, and extremely low at some points.
Named by George F. Kennan. This was the new American policy that wanted to contain communism within its existing borders.America would now do anything to keep to this policy (Vietnam War/ Korean War)
Truman Doctrine
Number one cause of initiation: Fear of Greece and Hungary becoming Communist. It would give 400 million dollars in aid f to Greece and Turkey. Truman would aid nations struggling against Communist movements.
Marshall Plan
Secretary of State George C. Marshall unveiled a recover plan for Europe. In early 1948, Congress approved the Marshall Plan. Over the next four years, the United States gave about 13 billions dollars in grants and loans to the nations in Western Europe. Aid was also offered to the satellite nations, but Stalin wouldn’t let them accept it.
NATO( The North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
This was formed in 1949, and it provided the military alliance to counter Soviet expansion. Twelve Western European Nations and North American nations acted together in order to defend Western Europe. A act against one of them was an act against all of them (collective security).
Collective Security
An act against one of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s member was an act against all of them.
United Nations
An organization formed after the League of Nations failed to keep peace (WWII).Its’ permanent home would be New York. It was based on the cooperation of all nations. Every nation sat on the General Assembly and the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China were on the Security Council.Its’ goal: to keep peace.
Dwight Eisenhower
The 34th President of the United States. His nickname was Ike and was a Republican. He had a middle course as President. He did not get rid of the New Deal Programs, such as Social Security and the minimum wage, but believed the federal government had too much power. He created the interstate highway system and began to spend federal dollars for education, mostly to train scientists.
Modern Republicanism
President Eisenhower’s views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control (Johnson with Vietnam).
Joseph McCarthy
In the1950s. He was a Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American Government, but had no credible evidence.He took advantage of fears of communism post- WWII to become incredibly influential. The expression “McCarthyism” was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists.
Korean War
The conflict that followed the crossing of the 38th parallel by the North Korean Forces (they were supplied and ordered to do it by the Soviet Union). Truman viewed this conflict as a test case for his containment policy. It was a conflict between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People’s Republic of China came to North Korea’s aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Election of 1948
Truman won even though people thought that his integration policies would cause him to lose, as were disapproved by the Dixiecrats (people against civil rights).
Warsaw Pact
Treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. This was in response to NATO.
John F. Kennedy
The 35th President of the United States, Democrat ,serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. He was President during part of the Cold War and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. He was the president who went on TV and told the public about the crisis and allowed Brezhnev to withdraw his missiles from Cuba if Kennedy withdrew his missiles from Turkey. Other events, which were during his terms was the building of the Berlin wall, the Space Race, and the New Frontier. His Presidency was called Camelot, because the play came out then and the family was like royalty.
A document giving an official instruction or command.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights. Also, to go where no man has gone before space.
Alliance for Progress
A program in which the United States gave billions of dollars to help Latin American countries overcome poverty, hatred of Americans, and other problems in order to counter Communism. It was not successful.
Peace Corps
An agency established in 1961 to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Third World Countries). It was successful and still runs today.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
in 1961, an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro. Unfortunately, the effort was funded by the U.S. and was famously disastrous.It turned many Cuban Americans against Kennedy.All but 300 were killed or captured out of 1400 invaders.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island. The Soviet leader ,Khrushchev, acceded to the U.S. demands a week later. This showed Khrushchevs’ weakness and soon after Brezhnev was the head of the Soviet Union.
Nikita Khruschev
Denounced policies of Stalin and created destalinization, lifted some restrictions of artists and intellectuals, freed political prisoners, ended terrorism by secret police. He was involved in the “Kitchen Debates” with Richard Nixon.Lost prestige after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Prohibits nuclear tests underwater, in the atmosphere or in outer space (but not underground) negotiated by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1963. It was a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Lyndon Johnson
The 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, a Democrat.He served a long career in both houses of the U.S. Congress, and in 1960 he was selected by then-Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy to be his running-mate. After Kennedy won the 1960 presidential election, he became the thirty-seventh Vice President, and in 1963, he succeeded to the role of presidency following Kennedy’s assassination. He was a major leader of the Democratic Party and as President was responsible for designing the Great Society, which had liberal legislation including civil rights laws, Medicare (health care for the elderly), Medicaid (health care for the poor), aid to education, and a “War on Poverty.” Simultaneously, he escalated the American involvement in the Vietnam War, from 16,000 American soldiers in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War on Poverty
Those programs of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor. Among these programs was volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), Medicaid, and the creation of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses (Lyndon B. Johnson initiated it).
Warren Court
Earl Warren led the Supreme Court and controversial decisions were made expanding civil rights. It was supposedly the most liberal court in American History.
Earl Warren
He was Chief Justice and he was marked with dealing mostly with civil rights and racial segregation.( Brown v. Board of Education and Miranda v. Arizona)
Gideon v. Wainwright
A landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys. This was under the Warren Court.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.This was under the Warren Court.
Berlin Wall
In 1961, The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushchev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Office of Economic Opportunity
This created the Job Corps to train young men and women from 16 to 21 in the work skills they needed to acquire better jobs. Also, established VISTA.This was under Lyndon B. Johnson.
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communities. Effort for Lyndon B, Johnson to end poverty.
Warren Commission
Appointed to investigate President Kennedy’s assassination. Found that Henry Lee Oswald was the only one involved in the assassination of President Kennedy.
Plessy v. Ferguson
An 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. It made African Americans and whites legally allowed to be separated, or segregated.It was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education.
The act of keeping people or groups apart. This was the “way things were” with African Americans and Caucasians until the 1960’s.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal. A major gain for African Americans, they could get certain rights.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He received the Noble Peace Prize in 1964.He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Civil Disobedience
a group’s refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination). This was exactly what happened during the Civil Rights Era.
This was for African Americans segregated lunch counters in the 1960s. African Americans eventually got lunch counters to be desegregated by this.
Albany Movement
African Americans in Albany, Georgia protested segregation in bus and train stations. Many of them were arrested and jailed. It was considered to be a failure by many people.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places. It greatly helped the Civil Rights Movement and was a great victory.
Freedom Summer
A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
James Baldwin
This African American author became one of the most prolific writers of fiction. In each of his novels, he presented some aspects of his life as an African American and the psychological effects of racism. Included among his notable novels are: Go Tell It On the Mountain (1953), Notes of a Native Son (1955), Giovanni’s Room (1956), Nobody Knows My Name (1961), Another Country (1962), and The Fire Next Time (1963).
De Facto Segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law. In other words, segregation not by law, was prominent for African Americans.
Urban Riots
Under Lyndon B. Johnson , large scale rioting, summer 1966 and 1967, so President appointed National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, philosophy: democracy to all citizens, adequate financing by both the federal and local govt.
Nation of Islam
A group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans. (Violent part of Civil Rights Movement)
Black Power Movement
African American movement that focused on gaining control of economic and political power to achieve equal rights by force in necessary. (Malcolm X)
Malcolm X
In 1952, he renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage. Then he converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s and became Black Muslims’ most dynamic street orator and recruiter. His beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Organized in 1942, mobilized mass popular resistance to discrimination in a way that the older, more conservative organizations had never done, (African American leaders helped organize sit ins and demonstrations in segregated theaters and restaurants). Founded by James Farmer.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was created to give young people a larger role in the civil rights movement. It was established by Ella Baker.
Stokely Carmichael
a black civil rights activist in the 1960’s. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,”Black power will smash everything Western civilization has created.”
Rosa Parks
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
George Wallace
Opposed desegregation of Arkansas school, ran for president 4 times, became known as a symbol for bigotry. He was eventually assassinated.
Brown v. Board of Education
Warren Court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; “separate but equal” has no place. It was th reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson. Eventually ensured that schools would be desegregated.
Watts Riot
The first large race riot since the end of World War II. In 1965, in the Watts section of Los Angeles, a riot broke out. This was the result of a white police officer striking a black bystander during a protest. This triggers a week of violence and anger revealing the resentment blacks felt toward their treatment.
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom. Eventually, Kennedy ordered his assassination.
South Vietnam
Is the commonly used name for the former Vietnamese state that existed from 1954 to 1976 in the portion of Vietnam that lies south of the 17th parallel. It was not communist and the United States fought for South Vietnam’s freedom until it was damaging America.
It was the capital of South Vietnam where it fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam which ended the Vietnam War.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
the policy of increasing military involvement, as in Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwindable.
Viet Cong
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Agent Orange
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas. It unfortunately causes cancer and other health problems.
Guerrilla Warfare
military strategy in which an army does not engage the enemy head on. This was used in the Vietnam War to ensure that the United States couldn’t win.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai. This deepened American people’s disgust for the Vietnam War. This was carried out by Lt. William Calley.
Richard Nixon
President of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He was a Republican and 37th President of the United States. He claimed the term “peace with honor” as he withdrew soldiers from South Vietnam and let the South Vietnamese fight off the Viet Cong.He followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.
Plan created by President Nixon that the US would help train South Vietnamese to fight the North Vietnamese and while the South Vietnamese fight them, the US slowly withdraws their soldiers. By 1973 the last of the US troops had left. The result of this was the fall of Saigon in 1975 because the United States had left.
Nixon widened the Vietnam War by moving troops into this country to try and remove enemy camps.
Kent State University
Kent State was the location of one of the many college student protests against the Vietnam War. The protest ended with a clash against the police and the death of several students. The incident greatly decreased the support for U.S. involvement in Vietnam and caused even more protest and resentment.
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress’ approval to stay longer than 90 days. It was designed to curtail President’s power
Paris Peace Accord
This was signed between North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the United States. It was to settle peace between North and South Vietnam. It didn’t let the United States interfere between the two anymore.
During the Vietnam War Hanoi’s transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, promptly repaired. Capital of North Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
Khe Sanh
This is a military base in northwestern South Vietnam that was attacked by communist troops. There was an increased traffic on the Ho Chi Minh Trail right before the assault.
Tet Offensive
In 1968, National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of Lyndon B Johnson and more anti-war sentiment.
Geneva Accords
A 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956. The two countries were divided by the 17th parallel.
Cesar Chavez
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund
Its purpose was to end discriminatory practices through lawsuits.
Native Americans
In 1960s and 1970s fought to stop the discrimination against them. The young took the lead in demanding change for African Americans. In 1968, the Chippewa activists Dennis Banks and George Mitchell founded the American Indian Movement (AIM).
Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Her book addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides, bringing attention to the environment.
Silent Spring
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Nuclear Power Plants
Advantages- no gases are released when burned. Disadvantages- nuclear waste and accidents occur. The nuclear accidents occurred at places, such as Love Canal and Three Mile Island.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
Ms. Magazine
Gloria Steinem helped co-found this magazine. Its title meant to protest the social custom of identifying women by their martial status rather than as individuals.
Japanese American Citizens League
founded in 1929 to protect Japanese Americans’ civil rights, worked for decades to receive government compensation for property lost by Japanese Americans interned in camps during World War II.
Internment & Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
Ralph Nader
In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the “patent” drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Young Americans in the 1960s who rejected conventional customs & mainstream culture.
A free music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in August 1969. It was the countercultures’ biggest event.
Places where hippies would run away and live in. This became a common association with the counterculture.
Psychedelic Drugs
Consciousness-altering drugs that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt the normal perception of time and space. These were used by hippies and were praised upon being used by the counterculture, but they led to prominent deaths like Jimmy Hendrix.
1968 Democratic National Convention
significant event in presidential election of 1968; demonstrated the confusion and lack of unity among Democrats; outside, protests and police brutality
Law and Order
Made by elected legislatures. Police enforce laws. Used force labor camps if broken the law. One party.
New Federalism
a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
Family Assistance Plan
workfare not welfare, required recipients to register for employment (brainchild Daniel Patrick Moynihan, attempts died in Congress but proved basis for welfare reform in the 90s)
Southern Strategy
Nixon’s plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party
“realistic politics,” practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles (Machiavelli)
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Nixon aimed to restore relations with the Communist China upon its public split from its ally, the Soviet Union; relations were pretty much restored; Soviet Union hated this
SALT I was a series of negotiations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. on the issue of nuclear arms reduction. The talks helped lower the total number of missiles each side would have and eased the tension between the two.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security guard foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down.
Democratic National Committee
Almost bugged by some members of CREEP for their Watergate complex in Washington, D.C.
Archibald Cox
A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
Saturday Night Massacre
During the Watergate scandal it was revealed that all the white house meetings had been tape recorded. Nixon refused to reveal the tapes. Archibald Cox was the special prosecutor who took Nixon to court to get the tapes. Nixon still refused and ordered Richardson to fire Cox. Richardson refused to order and resigned. General Robert Bork finally fired Cox.
Daniel Ellsberg
a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Gerald Ford
president 1974-77, Nixon’s Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned.His presidency was plagued by Nixon’s shadow, and pardoned Nixon.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices. In the 1970s’, set oil embargo.
an order forbidding the trade in or movement of commercial goods; any restraint or hindrance; to forbid to enter or leave port; to forbid trade with. Embargo set in 1970’s on the US.
A general and progressive increase in prices. High prices in the 1970’s because of the Oil Embargo.
Jimmy Carter
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. He was casual and a Washington outsider.
Washington Outsider
Jimmy Carter because he was originally a Peanut Farmer and a person hardly involved in Politics before.
Human Rights
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings. Jimmy Carter was obsessed to achieve this for all countries during his presidency.
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest achievement in office.
The soviet union getting stuck in the same position as the U.S. in Vietnam with Afghanistan.Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, and rebel forces out maneuvered the military superpower
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.’s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
1980 Olympics
US hockey team beat the Soviets during this Olympics, a large event that related to of the cold war and events going on in the world( Miracle on Ice)
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weakened the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
Affirmative Action
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities. Many people today argue if Affirmative Action should be used as a factor for colleges and jobs today.
1980 Election
Reagan wins Carter using the campaign “are you better off than 4 years ago?” with the clear response- NO. It spurred the Conservative Resurgence in the country.
Ronald Reagan
First elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and “populist” ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Teflon President
term given to Reagan because of his ability to avoid blame even when things went wrong
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Soviet Collapse
In the early 1980s, Ronald Reagan began to build up his military. He knew that the Soviet Union couldn’t keep up with this; thus, Gorbachev had to bring reforms to the Soviet Union and wanted better relations with the United States. 1989, was “the year of miracles”, because of all the bloodless revolutions. Eventually, the Soviet Union collapsed.
Reagan funded a mercenary army to fight the Marxist government of the country. It was the Central battle field of the New Cold War, since they wanted to eliminate the Sandinista government.
counterrevolutionary group in Nicaragua that opposed the Sandinistas
Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
George H.W. Bush
President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war
the state of the economy declines (under George. H.W. Bush)
Clarence Thomas
This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders. Increased George H.W. Bush’s popularity.
Saddam Hussein
As president of Iraq, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi’a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians, U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
___invaded Kuwait; this spurred the Persian Gulf War.
It was invaded by Iraq; the United Nations were scared that by Iraq occupying Kuwait they would soon go to Saudi Arabia (a place with a tremendous amount of oil).
dealt with long-range missiles; Bush and Gorbachev; reduction in long-range nuclear missiles
Bombing of Lebanon to eliminate Quaffdi.
Manuel Noriega
This dictator of Panama was arrested and brought to trial in the USA for drug trafficking
Bombed Night Club in Libya.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Boris Yeltsin
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.
when Yugoslavia fell apart it turned to different countries . Clinton sent troops to stop ethnic cleansing
Middle East
Geo-Political designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. It was/is an area of turmoil from the end of the Soviet reign to today.
1994 election
the first election in which blacks were allowed to vote; Nelson Mandela won and was president from 1994-1999.
Bill Clinton
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
George W. Bush
republican, neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs
Newt Gingrich
after the disagreement in the federal government over the budget between Republican leaders and the president, Public opinion turned quickly and powerfully against the Republican leadership and against much of its agenda. This controversial Republican Speaker of the House, quickly became one of the most unpopular political leaders in the nation, while President Clinton slowly improved his standing in the polls.
Contract with America
In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
1992 Election
The United States presidential election of 1992 had three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush; Democrat Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot. Bush had alienated much of his conservative base by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes, the economy was in a recession, and Bush’s perceived greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the relatively peaceful climate in the Middle East after the defeat of Iraq in the Gulf War. Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote, and a wide Electoral College margin.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites (in Africa )
2000 Election
The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush (1989-1993), and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President. Bill Clinton, the incumbent President, was vacating the position after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Bush narrowly won the November 7 election, with 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 (with one elector abstaining in the official tally). The election was noteworthy for a controversy over the awarding of Florida's 25 electoral votes, the subsequent recount process in that state, and the unusual event of the winning candidate having received fewer popular votes than the runner-up. It was the closest election since 1876 and only the fourth election in which the electoral vote did not reflect the popular vote.
Bush v. Gore
a United States Supreme Court case heard on December 11, 2000. In a per curiam opinion, by a vote of 7-2, the Court held that the Florida Supreme Court’s scheme for recounting ballots was unconstitutional, and by a vote of 5-4, the Court held that no alternative scheme could be established within the time limits established by Florida Legislature. The per curiam opinion was argued on the basis of Equal Protection.
Al Qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
September 11th
The terrorist attack by Al Qaeda on the World Trade Center. Two planes were hijacked and were flown into the Twin Towers and resulted in the death of over 3,000 people and the massive damage to the city of New York.
No Child Left Behind
Holds states, schools, and school districts more accountable for their standardized tests scores. The wanted outcome was better tests scores all around and overall a smarter and better population of young people that would positively contribute to a growing America.
World Trade Organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.” Clinton was impeached.
UN relief mission, under the command of the US, The relief mission initially succeeded, commanders also tried to settle the civil war, 30 U.S. soldiers lost their lives in the course of the conflict
A war is currently going on there/ similar to Vietnam.
a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital. Now a country that is trying to thrive.
Health Care
Clinton wanted healthcare for all Americans, but failed in achieving this.
Categories: History