WH Final Exam

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Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed in 1882, one of the two loose alliances in Europe; in the 20th century a series of crises tested both alliances
Triple Entente
France, Great Britain, and Russia formed in 1907; in the 20th century a series of crises tested both alliances
militarism
industrialization offered new methods of shipbuilding and the use of iron, steel, and chemicals for warfare; growth of mass armies and navies after 1900 heightened tensions in Europe
conscription
most western countries had established this, a military draft as a regular practice before 1914; European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914
Gavrilo Princip
June 28th 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand (heir to Hapsburg throne of Austria-Hungary); and his wife Sophia visited the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and a group of conspirators waited there in the streets including Gavrilo Princip; a 19 year old Bosnian serf, member of the Black Hand a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to Hapsburg throne of Austria-Hungary); and his wife Sophia visited the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and a group of conspirators waited there in the streets including Gavrilo Princip; a 19 year old Bosnian serf, member of the Black Hand a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria
Emperor William II
of Germany; gave Austria-Hungary a “blank check” promising Germany’s full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria-Hungary; July 28th Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
Czar Nicholas II
July 28th ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria-Hungary; leaders of the Russian army informed the czar that they could not partially mobilize; mobilization plans were based on war against Germany and Austria-Hungary
mobilization
the process of assembling troops and supplies for war; 1914- considered an act of war
*Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
HOW DID ALLIANCES LEAD TO THE GREAT WAR?
a. Europe’s great powers had been divided into two loose alliances: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy (Triple Alliance 1882) and France, Great Britain, and Russia (Triple Entente 1907).
b. A series of crises tested these alliances. Especially troublesome were the crises in the Balkans between 1908 and 1913. These events left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge. Self- interest and success guided each state. They were willing to use war to preserve their power.
HOW DID MILITARISM LEAD TO THE GREAT WAR?
a. Most western countries had established conscription (a military draft) as a regular practice before 1914. European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914. Militarism— the aggressive preparation for war- was growing. Influential military leaders drew up vast and complex plans for quickly mobilizing millions of soldiers and enormous quantities of supplies in the event of war.
b. Fearing that any changes would cause chaos in the armed forces, military leaders insisted that their plans could not be altered. This left European political leaders with little leeway. In 1914 they had to make decisions for military instead of political reasons.
HOW DID IMPERIALISM AND NATIONALISM LEAD TO THE GREAT WAR?
a. Militarism, nationalism, and the desire to stifle internal dissent may all have played a role in the starting of World War I. However, it was the decisions that European leaders made in response to a crisis in the Balkans that led directly to the conflict.
b. Nationalism, along with imperialism, had another serious result. Not all ethnic groups had become nations in Europe. Slavic minorities in the Balkans and the Austro- Hungarian Empire still dreamed of their own national states. The Irish in the British Empire and the Poles in the Russian Empire had similar dreams.
INTERNAL DISSENT LEADS TO GREAT WAR?
a. National desires were not only the source of internal strife at the beginning of the 1900’s. Socialist labor movements also had grown more powerful. The Socialists were increasingly inclined to us strikes, even violent ones, to achieve their goals.
b. Some conservative leaders, alarmed at the increase in labor strife and class division, feared that European nations were on the verge of revolution. This desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged various leaders to take the plunge into war in 1914.
DESCRIBE THE CRISIS IN THE BALKANS THAT OCCURRED IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY?
a. By 1914, SERBIA, supported by Russia, was determined to create a large, independent Slavic state in the Balkans. Austria Hungary, which had its own Slavic minorities to contend with, was equally determined to prevent that from happening.
b. On June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Hapsburg throne of Austria- Hungary, and his wife Sophia visited the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia. A group of conspirators waited there in the streets.
WHY DID GAVRILO PRINCIP KILL ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND?
a. In that group was Gavrilo Princip, a 19 year old Bosnian Serb. Princip was a member of the Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria Hungary and to become part of a large Serbian kingdom.
b. An assassination attempt earlier that morning by one of the conspirators had failed. Later that day, Princip succeeded in fatally shooting the archduke and his wife.
WHY AND HOW DID THE ASSASSINATION SPARK THE GREAT WAR?
a. The Austria- Hungarian government didn’t know whether or not the Serbian government had been directly involved in the archduke’s assassination, but it didn’t care.
b. Austrian leaders wanted to attack Serbia but feared that Russia would intervene on Serbia’s behalf. So they asked for— and received—the backing of their German allies.
c. Emperor William II of Germany gave Austria Hungary a “blank check,” promising Germany’s full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria Hungary.
d. On July 28, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia.
HOW DID RUSSIA MOBILIZE?
a. Russia was determined to support Serbia’s cause. On July 28th, Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria Hungary. Mobilization is the process of assembling troops and supplies for war. In 1914, mobilization was considered an act of war.
b. Leaders of the Russian army informed the czar that they could not partially mobilize. Their mobilization plans were based on a war against both Germany and Austria Hungary. Mobilizing against only Austria Hungary, they claimed would create chaos in the army. Based on this claim, the czar ordered full mobilization of the Russian army on July 29th, knowing that Germany would consider this order an act of war.
HOW DID THE CREATION OF MILITARY PLANS SUCH AS THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN HELP DRAW THE NATIONS OF EUROPE INTO THE GREAT WAR?
a. Germany reacted quickly. The German govt. warned Russia that it must halt its mobilization within 12 hrs. When Russia ignored this warning, Germany declared war on Russia on August 1.
b. The Germans had a military plan. General Alfred von Schlieffen had helped draw up the plan, which has known as the Schlieffen Plan.
First Battle of the Marne
On September 6, The French attacked a gap in the German line at the Battle of the Marne. For three days, France threw everything into the attack. Finally, the Germans fell back. Paris and France had been miraculously saved.
Western front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
Eastern front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Battle of Verdun
10 months after the attacks started in 1916/1917, 700,000 men lost their lives over a few miles of land in 1916. World War I had turned into a war of attrition. This was in Verdun, France. The attacks had begun as a result of trench warfare (two lines of trenches reached from one point to the frontiers of another)
war of attrition
a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
zeppelin
giant airships used by the Germans to bomb London and eastern England; caused little damage, but frightened many people; filled with hydrogen gas and became raging infernos when hit by antiaircraft guns
Gallipolli
Allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipolli, southwest of Constantinople in April 1915. However, the campaign proved disastrous forcing the Allies to withdraw.
Lawerence of Arabia
British officer known as Lawerence of Arabia urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overlords. In 1918 British forces from Egypt mobilized troops from India, Australia, and New Zealand and destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East.
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
total war
As WW1 dragged on, it became a total war involving a complete mobilization of resources and people. It affected the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, however remote they might be from the battlefields.
propaganda
The British Parliament passed the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA), which allowed the government to arrest protestors as traitors. Newspapers were censored and sometimes publication was suspended. Wartime governments made active use of propaganda to increase enthusiasm for the war. At the beginning, public officials needed to do little to achieve this goal. The British & French, exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium and found that their citizens were only too willing to believe these accounts.
Influenza Epidemic of 1918
In the fall of 1918, just as WW1 was winding down in Europe, a deadly influenza epidemic struck. Probably spread by the soldiers returning from the front, it became the deadliest epidemic in history:
An estimated 675,000 Americans died, ten times as many as had died in war
An estimated 50 million people died worldwide
COMPARE THE WAR ON THE WESTERN FRONT WITH THAT ON THE EASTERN FRONT
a. WESTERN FRONT
i. German hoped for a quick end to the war rested on a military gamble. The
Schlieffen Plan had called for the German army to make a vast encircling
movement through Belgium into northern France. According to the plan, the
German forces would sweep around Paris. This would enable them to surround
most of the French army.
ii. The German advance was halted a short distance from Parish at the First Battle
of the Marne (Sept. 6-10). To stop the Germans, French military leaders loaded
2,000 Parisians taxicabs with fresh troops and sent them to the front of the line.
iii.
The war quickly turned into a stalemate as neither the Germans nor the
French could dislodge each other from the trenches they had dug for shelter.
These trenches were ditches protected by barbed wire.
iv.
Two lines of trenches soon reached from the English Channel to the
frontiers of Switzerland. The Western Front had become bogged down in trench
warfare. Both sides were kept in virtually the same positions for four ears

b. EASTERN FRONT
i. Unlike the Western Front, the war on the Eastern Front was marked by mobility.
The costs, however, was equally enormous. At the beginning of the war, the
Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated at the
Battle of Tannenberg on August 30 and the Battle of Masurian Lakes on Sept.
15. After these defeats, the Russians were no longer a threat to Germany.
ii. Austria- Hungary, Germany’s ally, fared less well at first. The Austrians had been
defeated by the Russians in Galicia and thrown out of Serbia as well. To make
matters worse, the Italians betrayed their German and Austria allies in the Triple
Alliance by attacking Austria in May 1915.
iii.
Italy thus joined France, Great Britain, and Russia, who had previously
been known as the Triple Entente, but now were called the Allied Powers, or
Allies.
iv.
By this time, the Germans had come to the aid of the Austrians. A
German- Austrian army defeated the Russian army in Galicia and pushed the
Russians far back into their own territory. Russian causalities stood at 2.5 million
killed, captured, or wounded. The Russians had almost been knocked out of the
war.
v. Encouraged by their success against Russia, Germany and Austria Hungary,
joined by Bulgaria in Sept. 1915, attacked and eliminated Serbia from the war.
Their successes in the east would enable the German troops to move back to
the offensive in the west.

BRIEFLY DESCRIBE TRENCH WARFARE
Trench warfare baffled military leaders who had been trained to fight wars of
movement and maneuver. At times, the high command on either side would order an
offensive that would begin with an artillery barrage to flatten the enemy’s barbed wire
and leave the enemy in a state of shock. After “softening up” the enemy in this fashion,
a mass of soldiers would climb out of their trenches with fixed bayonets and hope to
work their way toward the enemy trenches. The attacks rarely worked because men
advancing unprotected across open fields could be fired at by enemy’s machine guns. In
1916 and 1917, millions of young men died in the search for the elusive breakthrough.
In just 10 months at Verdun, France, 700,000 men lost their lives over a few miles of
land in 1916. WWI had turned into a WAR OF ATTRITION, a war based on wearing the
other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses.
LIST THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INVENTIONS USED IN WW1 AND BRIEFLY DESCRIBE HOW THEY CHANGED WARFARE
a. Trench warfare left WWI in stalemate with neither side able to gain more than a few
miles of ground. Both the Allied Powers and the Central Powers attempted to gain an
advantage with new weapons and war machines. Machine guns, poison gas, fighter
airplanes, and tanks were all introduced or vastly improved during WWI. In the end,
new technology did not break the stalemate. It did, however, cause the deadliest war
the world had yet seen. Nearly 10 million people perished during WWI, which became
known as “the war to end all wars.”
b. By the end of 1915, airplanes had appeared on the battlefront for the first time in
history. Planes were first used to spot the enemy’s position. Soon, planes also began
to attack ground targets, especially enemy communications. Fights for control of the
air occurred and increased over time. At first, pilots fired at each other with handheld
pistols. Later, machine guns were mounted on the noses of planes, which made the
skies considerably more dangerous. The Germans also used their giant airships—
the zeppelins—to bomb London and eastern England. This caused little damage but
frightened many people. Germany’s enemies, however, soon found that zeppelins,
which were filled with hydrogen gas, quickly became raging infernos when hit by
antiaircraft guns.
WIDENING THE WAR
Bulgaria entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, as Germany, Austria
Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were called. Russia, GB, and France—- the Allied
Powers— declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The Allie tried to open a Balkan front
by landing forces at Gallipoli, southwest of Constantinople, in April 1915. However, the
campaign proved disastrous, forcing the Allies to withdraw. In return for Italy entering
the war on the Allied side, France and GB promised to let Italy have some Austrian
territory. Italy on the side of the Allies opened up a front against Austria Hungary.
b. By 1917, the war had truly become a world conflict. That year, while stationed in the
Middle East, a British officer known as LAWRENCE OF ARABIA urged Arab princes to
revolt against their Ottoman overlords. In 1918 British forces from Egypt mobilized
troops from India, Australia, and New Zealand and destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the
Middle East. The Allies also took advantage of Germany’s preoccupations in Europe and
lack of naval strength to seize German colonies in the rest of the world. Japan, a British
ally beginning in 1902, seized a number of German held islands in the Pacific. Australia
seized German New Guinea.
WHY DID THE UNITED STATES JOIN THE WAR IN 1917 ON THE SIDE OF THE ALLIES?
a. At first, the US tried to remain neutral. As WWI dragged on, however, it became more
difficult to do so. The immediate cause of the US involvement grew out of the naval war
between Germany and GB. Britain had used it superior naval power to set up a blockade
of Germany. The blockade kept war materials and other goods from reaching Germany
by sea. Germany had retaliated by setting up a blockade of Britain. Germany enforced
its blockade with the use of unrestricted submarine warfare, which included the sinking
of passenger liners.
b. On May 7, 1915, German forces sank the British ship LUSITANIA. About 1,100 civilians,
including over 100 Americans, died. After strong protests from the US, the German
government suspended unrestricted warfare in Sept. 1915 to avoid antagonizing the
US further. Only once did the Germans and Britain engage in direct naval battle—at the
Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916, when neither side won a conclusive victory.
c. By January 1917, however, the Germans were eager to break the deadlock in the
war. German naval officers convinced Emperor William II that resuming the use of

unrestricted submarine warfare could starve the British into submission within 6
months. When the emperor expressed concern about the US, Admiral Holtzendorf
assured him, “I give your Majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land
on the continent.”
d. The German naval officers were quite wrong. The British were not forced to
surrender, and the return to unrestricted submarine warfare brought the US into
the war in April 1917. US troops did not arrive in large numbers in Europe until 1918.
However, the entry of the US into the war gave the Allied Powers a psychological boost
and a major new source of money and war goods.

THE IMPACT OF TOTAL WAR
a. As WWI dragged on, it became a total war involving a complete mobilization of
resources and people. It affected the lives of all citizens in the warring countries,
however remote they might be from the battlefields.
b. Masses of men had to be organized, and supplies were manufactured and purchased for
years of combat. ( Germany alone had 5.5 million men in uniform in 1916.) This led to an
increase in government powers and the manipulation of public opinion to keep the war
effort going. The home front was rapidly becoming a cause for as much effort as the war
front.
WHY AND HOW DID GOVERNMENT POWERS INCREASE DURING THE GREAT WAR?
a. Most people had expected the war to be short. Little thought had been given to long-
term wartime needs. Governments had to respond quickly, however, when the new
war machines failed to achieve their goals. Many more men and supplies were needed
to continue the war effort. To meet these needs, governments expanded their powers.
Countries drafted tens of millions of young men, hoping for that elusive breakthrough to
victory.
b. Wartime governments throughout Europe also expanded their power over their
economies. Free- market capitalistic systems were temporarily put aside. Governments
set up price, wage, and rent controls. They also rationed food supplies and materials;
regulated imports and exports; and took over transportation systems and all industries.
In effect, in order to mobilize all the resources of their nations for the war effort,
European nations set up planned economies—systems directed by government
agencies.
c. Under conditions of total war mobilization, the differences between soldiers at war and
civilians at home were narrowed. In the view of political leaders, all citizens were part
of a national army dedicated to victory. WOODROW WILSON, president of the US, said
that the mean and women “who remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less
a part of the army than the men beneath the battle flags.”
WHAT TACTICS DID BELLIGERENTS ON BOTH SIDES USE TO REVIVE CITIZEN MORALE AND
SUPPORT FOR THE WAR EFFORT?
a. As the war continued and causalities grew worse, the patriotic enthusiasm that had
marked the early stages of WWI waned. By 1916, there were signs that civilian morale was beginning to crack. War governments, however, fought back against growing
opposition to the war.
b. Authoritarian regimes, such as those of Germany, Russia, and Austria Hungary, relied
on force to subdue their populations. Under the pressures of the war, however,
even democratic states expanded their police powers to stop internal dissent. The
British Parliament, for example, passed the Defence of the Realm Act. It allowed the
government to arrest protesters as traitors. Newspapers were censored, and sometimes
publications were suspended.
c. Wartime governments made active use of propaganda to increase enthusiasm for the
war. At the beginning, public officials needed to do little to achieve this goal. The British
and French, for example, exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium and found that their
citizens were only too willing to believe these accounts.
d. As the war progressed and morale sagged, governments were forced to devise new
techniques for motivating the people. In one British recruiting poster, for example, a
small daughter asked her father, “Daddy what did YOU do in the Great War?” while her
younger brother played with toy soldiers.
HOW DID THE GREAT WAR AFFECT WOMEN?
a. WWI created new roles for women. Because so many men left to fight at the front,
women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them before.
Women were employed in jobs that had once been considered beyond their capacity.
b. These jobs included civilian occupations such as chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm
laborers, and factory workers in the Krupp Armaments works in Germany in 1918 were
women. Also, between 1914 and 1918 in Britain, the number of women working in
public transport rose 14 times, doubled in commerce, and rose by nearly a third in
industry.
c. The place of women in the workforce was far from secure, however. Both men and
women seemed to expect that many of the new jobs for women were only temporary.
d. At the end of the war, governments would quickly remove women form the jobs they
had encourage them to take earlier. The work benefits for women from WWI were
short- lived as men returned to the job market. By 1919, there would be 650,000
unemployed women in GB. Wages for the women who were still employed would be
lowered.
e. Nevertheless, in some countries the role women played in wartime economies had
a positive impact on the women’s movement for social and political emancipation.
The most obvious gain was the right to vote, which was given to women in Germany,
Austria, and the US immediately after the war. British women over 30 gained the vote,
together with the right to stand for Parliament, in 1918.
f. Many upper- and middle- class women also gained new freedoms. In ever- increasing
numbers, young women from these groups took jobs, had their own apartments, and
showed their new independence.
*Czar Nicholas II
(1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership.
Grigory Rasputin
A self-proclaimed Russian holy man and prominent figure at the court of Czar Nicholas II. He was viewed as corrupt, and support for czarist Russia deteriorated because of him.
Alexandra
CZAR NICHOLAS II wife
March Revolution
At the beginning of March 1917, working-class women led a series
of strikes in the capital city of Petrograd (St Petersburg), helping to change Russian
history. A few weeks earlier, the government had started bread rationing in Petrograd
after the price of bread had skyrocketed. Many of the women who stood in the lines
waiting for bread were also factory workers who worked 12 hour days. Exhausted
and distraught over their half-starving and sick children, the women finally revolted

On March 8,about 10,000 women marched through the city of Petrograd demanding
“Peace and Bread” and “Down with Autocracy”. Other workers joined them, and
together they called for a general strike. The strike shut down all the factories in the
city on march 10. Alexandra wrote her husband Nicholas II at the battlefront:
“This is a hooligan movement. If the weather were very cold they would all probably
stay at home.” Nicholas ordered troops to break up the crowds by shooting them if
necessary. Soon, however, large numbers of the soldiers joined the demonstrators and
refused to fire on the crowds

Duma
legislative body, which the czar had tried to dissolve, met anyway. On March 12,
it established the provisional government, which mainly consisted of middle-class Duma
representatives. This government urged the czar to step down. Because he no longer
had the support of the army or even the aristocrats, Nicholas II reluctantly agreed and
stepped down on March 15, ending the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty.
Aleksandr Kerensky
Headed the provisional government. He decided to carry on the
war to preserve Russia’s honor. This decision to remain in WW1 was a major blunder. It
satisfied neither the workers nor the peasants, who were tired and angry from years of
suffering and wanted above all an end to the war. Government was challenged by the
soviets.
Soviets
challenged the government. They were councils composed of representatives
from the workers and soldiers. The soviet of Petrograd had been formed in March
1917. At the same time, soviets sprang up in army units, factory towns, and rural areas.
The soviets, largely made up of socialists, represented the more radical interest of the
lower classes. One group—the Bolsheviks—came to play a crucial role.
Bolsheviks
began a small faction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social
Democrats. The Bolsheviks came under the leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov known
to the world as V.I.Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924).
Leon Trotsky
By the end of October, Bolsheviks made up a slight majority in the
Petrograd and Moscow soviets. The number of party members had grown from 50,000
to 240,000. With Leon TROTSKY, a dedicated revolutionary, as head of the Petrograd
soviet, the Bolshevks were in a position to claim power in the name of the soviets.
During the night of November 6, Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace, the seat of
the provisional government. The government quickly collapsed with little bloodshed.
This overthrow coincided with a meeting of the all-Russian Congress of Soviets, which
represented local soviets countrywide. Outwardly, Lenin turned over the power of
the provisional government to the Congress of Soviets. The real power, however,
passed to a council headed by Lenin. The Bolsheviks, who soon renamed themselves
the Communists, still had a long way to go. Lenin had promised peace; and that, he
realized, would not be an easy task.
*November Revolution
The Russian Revolution was the most violent and radical
revolution since the French Revolution. In March 1917, the czar abdicated and a
provisional government took control. Then, led by VI Lenin, the Bolsheviks seized
power in November 1917. This marked a new era of Soviet rule. Russia had become
the world’s first socialist state, and Lenin intended for the revolution to spread. The
day after the Bolsheviks seized the Winter Palace, Lenin addressed the Russian people.
In his speech he outlined the goals of the Bolsheviks. These goals threatened the
governments of Western Europe. “The first thing is the adoption of practical measures
to realize peace….We shall offer peace to the peoples of all the warning countries upon
the basis of the Soviet terms—no annexations, no indemnities, and the right of self-
determination of peoples. This proposal of peace will meet with resistance on the part
of the imperialist governments….But we hope that revolution will soon break out in all
the warning countries. This is why we address ourselves especially to the workers of
France, England, and Germany.” (said by VI Lenin, quoted in Ten Days that Shook the
World, by John Reed, 1919)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
On March 3, 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with
Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces. To his
critics, Lenin argued that it made no difference. The spread of the socialist revolution
throughout Europe would make the treaty largely irrelevant. In any case, he had
promised peace to the Russian people. Real peace did not come, however, because the
country soon sank into civil war.
Russian Civil War
Many people were opposed to the new Bolshevik, or Communist
government. These people included not only groups loyal to the czar but also liberal
and anti-Leninist socialists. Many liberals supported a constitutional monarchy, while
a number of socialists supported gradual reform. These socialists expected to work for
a socialist state under more democratic leaders than Lenin. They were joined by the
Allies, who were extremely concerned about the Communist takeover. The Allies sent
thousands of troops to various parts of Russia in the hope of bringing Russia back into
the war. The Allied forces rarely fought on Russian soil, but they gave material aid to
anti-Communist forces. Between 1918 and 1921, the Communist, or RED, Army fought
on many fronts against these opponents. The first serious threat to the Communists
came from Siberia. An anti-Communist, or White, force attacked and advanced almost
to the Volga River before being stopped. Attacks also came from the Ukranians, and
from the Baltic regions. In mid-1919, White forces swept through Ukraine and advanced
almost to Moscow before being pushed back. By 1920, however, the major White
forces swept through Ukraine and advanced almost to Moscow before being pushed
back. By 1920, however, the major White forces had been defeated and Ukraine
retaken. The next year, the Communist regime regained control over the independent
nationalist governments in Georgia, Russian Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The royal family
was another victim of the civil war. After the czar abdicated, he, his wife, and their five
children had been held as prisoners. In April 1918, they were moved to Yekaterinburg, a
mining town in the Urals. On the night of July 16, members of the local soviet murdered
the czar and his family and burned their bodies in a nearby mine shaft.
Red Terror
the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
WHY DID THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE WANT TO WITHDRAW FROM THE GREAT WAR BY 1917?
a. After its defeat by Japan in 1905, and the Revolution of 1905, Russia was unprepared
both militarily and technologically for the total war of WW1. Russia had no competent
military leaders. Even worse, Czar Nicholas II insisted on taking personal charge on the
armed forces in spite of his obvious lack of ability and training.
b. In addition, Russian industry was unable to produce the weapons needed for the army.
Supplies and munitions were rarely at the places where they needed to be. Many
soldiers trained using broomsticks. Others were sent to the front without rifles and told
to pick one up from a dead comrade.
c. Given these conditions, it is not surprising that the Russian army suffered incredible
losses. Between 1914 and 1916, 2 million soldiers were killed, and another 4-6 million
were wounded or captured. By 1917, the Russian will to fight had vanished.
WHAT ROLE DID GRIGORY RASPUTIN PLAY IN BRINGING ABOUT THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION?
a. Grigory Rasputin began to influence the czar’s wife, Alexandra.
b. Rasputin gained Alexandra’s confidence through her son, Alexis who had hemophilia. Alexandra believed that Rasputin had extraordinary powers, for he alone seemed to be to stop her sons bleeding. With the czar at the battlefront, Alexandra made all of the important decisions after consulting Rasputin. His influence made him an important
power behind the throne. Rasputin often interfered in government affairs.
c. As the leadership at the top stumbled its way through a series of military and economic disasters, the Russian people grew more and more upset with the czarist regime. They assassinated Rasputin in Dec. 1916. They shot him 3 times, tied him up and threw him into the Neva River.
BRIEFLY DESCRIBE WHAT HAPPENED IN THE MARCH AND NOVEMBER REVOLUTIONS OF 1917
a. At the beginning of March 1917, working- class women led a series of strikes in the capital city of Petrograd (St. Petersburg), helping to change Russian history. A few weeks earlier, the government had started bread rationing in Petrograd after the price of bread had skyrocketed.
b. Many of the women who stood in the lines waiting for bread were also factory workers who worked 12 hour days. Exhausted and distraught over their half starving and sick children, the women finally revolted.
c. On March 8, about 10,000 women marched through the city of Petrograd demanding “Peace and Bread” and “Down with Autocracy.” Other workers joined them, and together they called for a general strike. The strike shut down all factories in the city on March 10.
d. Alexandra wrote her husband Nicholas II, “This is a hooligan movement. If the weather were very cold they would all stay at home.” Nicholas ordered troops to break up the crowds by shooting them if necessary. Soon, however, large numbers of the soldiers joined the demonstrators and refused to fire on the crowds.
e. The Duma, or legislative body, which the czar had tried to dissolve, met anyway. On March 12, it established the provisional government, which mainly consisted of middle-class Duma representatives. This government urged the czar to step down. Because he no longer had the support of the army or even the aristocrats, Nicholas II reluctantly agreed and stepped down on March 15, ending the 300 year- old Romanov dynasty.
German Offensive of 1918
– March 1918
– Germans gamble everything on last offensive
– Lundendorff made decision
– German army reached Marne, got no further
– German troops were exhausted and American troops were strong
November 11, 1918
On November 3, 1918, sailors in the northern German town
of Kiel mutinied. Within days, councils of workers and soldiers formed throughout
northern Germany and took over civilian and military offices. Emperor William II
gave in to public pressure and left the country on November 9. After William II’s
departure, the Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announced the creation of
a democratic republic. Two days later, on November 11, 1918, the new German
government signed an armistice (a truce, an agreement to end the fighting)
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the US that outlined (before the end of the war,
“Fourteen Points” to the US Congress—his basis for a peace settlement that he
believed justified the enormous military struggle being waged. His proposals for a
truly just and lasting peace included reaching the peace agreements openly rather
than through secret diplomacy. His proposals also included reducing armamanets
(military forces or weapons) to a “point consistent with domestic safety” and
ensuring self-determination. He portrayed WW1 as a people’s war against
“absolutism and militarism”. These two enemies of liberty, he argued, could be
eliminated only by creating democratic governments and a “general association of
nations.” This association would guarantee “political independence and territorial
integrity to great and small states alike.” Wilson became a spokesperson for a new
world order based on democracy and international cooperation. When he arrived
in Europe for the peace conference, Wilson was enthusiastically cheered by many
Europeans. President Wilson soon found that more practical motives guided other
states.
Self-determination
Right of each people to have their own nation. Principle that supposedly guided the Paris Peace conference. However, the mixtures of peoples in eastern Europe made it impossible to draw boundaries along strict ethnic lines. Compromises had to be made, sometimes to satisfy the national interests of the victories.
Georges Clemenceau
France’s approach to peace was chiefly guided by its desire
for national security. He was the premier of France (during WW1). the French
people had suffered the most from German aggression. The French desired revenge
and security against future German attacks. Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped
of all weapons and vast German reparations.
Big Four
Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)
Reparations
German payments to cover the costs of the war, and a separate
Rhineland as a buffer state between france and Germany. Payment made to the
victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Treaty of Versailles
The final peace settlement of Paris consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.The Treaty of Versailles with Germany was by far the most important. The Germans considered it a harsh peace. They were especially unhappy with Article 231, the so-called War Guilt Clause, which declared that Germany (and Austria) were responsible for starting the war.
Mandates
territory temporarily governed by another nation on behalf of the league of nations
WHAT WAS THE GAMBLE THAT THE GERMANS TOOK IN THE SPRING OF 1918? WHAT WAS THE RESULT?
a. For Germany, the withdrawal of the Russian offered new hope for a successful end to the war. Germany was no free to concentrate entirely on the Western Front. ERICH LUDENDORFF, who guided German military operations, decided to make one final military gamble—a grand offensive in the west to break the military stale mate. In fact, the last of Germany’s strength went into making this one great blow. The divisions were running low on provisions, reserves of soldiers were nearly depleted, and the German home front was tired of the war.
b. The German advance was stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne on July 1918. French, Moroccan, and American troops supported by hundreds of tanks, threw the Germans back over the Marne.
c. “August 8th was the black day of the German army in the history of this war” gamble didn’t work
d. A million American troops poured into France, and the Allies began an advance toward Germany. On Sept. 29th, 1918, General Ludendorff told German leaders that the war was lost. He demanded the government ask for peace at once.
i. German officials soon found that the Allies were unwilling to make peace with the autocratic imperial government of Germany. Reforms for a liberal government came too late for the tired, angry German people.
ii. On November 3, 1918, sailors in the northern German town of Kiel mutinied. Within days, councils of workers and soldiers formed throughout northern Germany and took over civilian and military offices. Emperor William II gave into public pressure and left the country on Nov. 9. After William II’s departure, the Social Democrats under FREIDRICH EBERT announced the creation of a democratic republic. Two days later, on Nov. 11, 1918, the new German government signed an armistice.
WHAT BECAME OF THE AUSTRO- HUNGARIAN EMPIRE WHEN WW1 ENDED?
a. Austria Hungary experienced disintegration and revolution. AS war weariness took hold of the empire, ethnic groups increasingly sought to achieve their independence. By the time, WW1 ended, the Austro Hungarian Empire had ceased to exist.
b. The empire had been replaced by the independent republics of Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, along with the large monarchical state called Yugoslavia. Rivalries among the nations that succeeded Austria- Hungary would weaken eastern Europe for the next 80 years.
WHICH NATIONS WERE REPRESENTED AT THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1919? WHICH NATIONS HAD NO REPRESENTATION AT THE CONFERENCE?
a. United States, France, Great Britain, and Italy.
b. Germany was not invited to attend, and Russia couldn’t be present because of its civil war.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE GOALS OF FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE UNITED STATES AT THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE?
a. GREAT BRITIAN- David Lloyd George (prime minister) had won a decisive victory in the elections in Dec 1918. His platform was simple: make the Germans pay for this dreadful war
b. FRANCE- approach to peace was chiefly guided by its desire for national security. Georges Clemenceau (premier) the French people had suffered the most from German aggression. The French desired revenge and security against future German attacks. Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of all weapons, vast German payments (reparations) to cover the costs of war, and a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany.
c. Big Three- US, GB, and FranceClemmenceau and Lloyd George wanted to punish Germany.
d. US- Wilson wanted to create a world organization, the League of Nations, to prevent future wars.
e. WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED IS BELOW THIS
f. Wilson’s wish that the creation of an international peacekeeping organization be the first order of business was granted. On Jan. 25, 1919, the conference accepted the idea of League of Nations. In return, Wilson agreed to make compromises on territorial arrangements. He did so because he believed that the League could later fix any unfair settlements.
g. Clemenceau also compromised to obtain some guantees for French security. He gave up France’s wish for a separate Rhineland and instead accepted a defensive alliance with GB and US. However, the US Senate refused to ratify this agreement, which weakened the Versailles peace settlement.
WHY DID WOODROW WILDON MAKE COMPROMISES IN REGARD TO HIS FOURTEEN POINTS?
a. Wilson outlined “Fourteen Points” to the US Congress—his basis for a peace settlement that he believed justified the enormous military struggle being waged.
b. Wilson’s proposals for a truly just and lasting peace included reaching the peace agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy. His proposals also included reducing armaments (military forces or weapons) to a “point consistent with domestic safety” and ensuring self- determination (the right of each people to have their own nation.)
c. Wilson portrayed WW1 as a people’s war against “absolutism and militarism.” These two enemies of liberty, he argued, could be eliminated only by creating democratic governments and a “general association of nations.” This association would guarantee “political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
d. Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation. When he arrived in Europe for the peace conference, Wilson was enthusiastically cheered by many Europeans. President Wilson soon found, however, that more practical motives guided other states.
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES?
a. The final peace settlement of Parish consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. The Treaty of Versailles with Germany was the most important.
b. The Germans considered it a harsh peace. They were especially unhappy with Article 231, the so- called War Guilt Clause, which declared that Germany (and Austria) were responsible for starting the war. The treaty ordered Germany to pay reparations for all damages that the Allied governments and their people sustained as a result of the war.

c. The military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles also angered the Germans. Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force. Alsace and Lorraine, taken by the Germans from France in 1871, were now returned. Sections of Eastern Germany were awarded to a new Polish state.
d. German land along the Rhine River became a demilitarized zone, stripped of all weapons and fortifications. This, it was hoped would serve as a barrier to any future German moves against France. Although outraged by the “dictated peace,” Germany accepted the treaty.

EXPLAIN HOW THE MAP OF EASTERN EUROPE WAS REDRAWN AS A RESULT OF THE WAR AND THE PEACE TREATIES THAT ENDED IT
a. The German and Russian empires lost much territory. The Austro- Hungarians Empire disappeared. New nation- states emerged from of the lands of these three empires: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary. New territorial arrangements were also made in the Balkans. Romania acquired additional lands. Serbia formed the nucleus of a new state, called Yugoslavia, which combined Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AS A RESULT OF THE GREAT WAR?
a. It was broken up by the peace settlement. To gain Arab support against the Ottoman Turks during the war, the Western Allies had promised to recognize the independence of Arab states in the Ottoman Empire. Once the war over, however the Western nations changed their minds. France controlled the territory of Syria, and Britain controlled the territories of Iraq and Palestine.
WHAT DOES THE TEXTBOOK MEAN BY THE STATEMENT “WW1 SHATTERED THE LIBERAL, RATIONAL SOCIETY THAT HAD EXISTED IN THE LATE 19TH-20TH CENTURY EUROPE?”
a. The deaths of nearly 10 million people, as well as the incredible destruction caused by the war, undermined the whole idea of progress. Entire populations had participated in a devastating slaughter.
LIST THE MAJOR CONSEQUENCES AND LEGACIES OF THE GREAT WAR?
As a result of compromises, almost every eastern European state was left with ethnic minorities; Germans in Poland; Hungarians, Poles, and Germans in Czechoslovakia; Hungarians in Romania; and Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, and the Albanians in Yugoslavia.
b. The peace settlement created the mandate system
c. Power of governments over the lives of citizens increased
d. Freedom of press and speech were limited in the name of national security
e. WW1 made the practice of strong central authority a way of life
f. The turmoil created by the war also seemed to open the door to even greater insecurity. Revolutions broke up old empires and created new states, which led to new problems. The hope that Europe and the rest of the world would return to normalcy was, however, soon dashed.
annex
incorporated a country within a state; 1874 GB annexed the west coastal states as the first British colony of Gold Coast, at the same time Britain established a protectorate in Nigeria
*Scramble for Africa
By the late 1800s, the Industrial Revolution had spread throughout Europe. Industrialized nations became economic rivals as they sought new markets in Africa for their manufactured goods and raw materials for production at home. Africa was largely untapped market for European products and had rubber, ivory, minerals, and other natural resources as well. Many Europeans also saw colonies as a way to assert their nation’s status as a world power. Advances in transportation and technology fueled interest in African colonization. As steamships replaced sailing ships, travel to Africa became faster. The Suez Canal made Africa part of a key trade route to India. New medicines increased protection against malaria and other tropical diseases, making colonization safer.
Muhammad Ali
1805, an officer of the Ottoman army; seized the power and established a separate Egyptian state; during the next 30 years Muhammad Ali introduced a series of reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world; modernized the army, set up public school system, helped create small industries that refined sugar, produced textiles, munitions and built ships
Suez Canal
1854 French entrepreneur Ferdinand de Lesseps, signed a contract to begin building the SC.; canal was completed in 1869; British took interest in Egypt after the canal was opened, belief that the canal was “the lifeline to India”; GB tried to gain as much control as possible over in the canal area; 1875 GB bought Egypt’s share in the Suez Canal; an Egyptian army revolt against foreign influence broke out in 1881; Britain suppressed the revolt; Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914;
David Livingston
aroused popular interest in the dense tropical jungles of Central Africa; he arrived in Africa in 1841 as a 27-year-old medical missionary; spent 30 years in Africa trekked through uncharted regions and sometimes traveled by canoe; mostly walked and explored the interior of the continent; made detailed notes of his discoveries and sent the information back to London whenever he could; major goal was to find a navigable river that would open Central Africa to European commerce and to Christianity; disappeared for a while and Henry Stanley was sent to find him & found; death in 1873
Henry Stanley
young journalist, after Livingston disappeared, The New York Herald, hired Stanley to find David Livingston alive; Stanley did find him on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, Stanley greeted the explorer, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”; after death of David Livingstone Stanley remained in Africa to carry on the explorer’s work; strong dislike of Africa “I detest the land most heartily.” 1870s- explored the Congo River in Central Africa and sailed down it to the Atlantic Ocean, encouraged British to send settlers to the Congo River Basin; Britain refused so Stanley turned to King Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II
real driving force behind the colonization of Central Africa; rushed enthusiastically into pursuit of an empire in Africa; “To open to civilization,” “the only part of our globe where it has not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness which envelops who populations, is a crusade, if I may say so, etc.” profit was important to Leopold, 1876- hired Henry Stanley to set up Belgium settlements in the Congo; claim to vast territories of the Congo aroused widespread concern among other European states
Boers (Afrikaners)
descendants of the original Dutch settlers; occupied Cape Town and surrounding areas in South Africa since the seventeenth century; 1830s disgusted with British rule so the Boers moved from coastal lands and headed northward on the Great Trek; 1/5 Dutch speaking South Africans joined the Trek; parties eventually settled in the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers and in the regions north of the Vaal River; in the areas the Boers formed 2 independent republics (the Orange Free State and the Transvaal -South African Republic); believed that white superiority was ordained by God and denied non-Europeans any place in their society other than laborers or servants; as they settled lands the Boers put many indigenous people on the reservations; battled the indigenous Zulu people; when gold and diamonds were discovered in the Transvaal British settlers swarmed in looking to make their fortunes and Boer residents resented the settlers and they were mistreated
Great Trek
1830s disgusted with British rule so the Boers moved from coastal lands and headed northward on the Great Trek; 1/5 Dutch speaking South Africans joined the Trek; parties eventually settled in the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers and in the regions north of the Vaal River; in the areas the Boers formed 2 independent republics (the Orange Free State and the Transvaal -South African Republic)
indigenous
those native to a region
*Cecil Rhodes
1800s, British policy in South Africa was influenced by Cecil Rhodes; founded diamond and gold companies that made him a fortune; champion of British expansion; “I think what God would like me to do is to paint as much of Africa’s British red as possible.”; one of the goals was to create a series of British colonies “from the Cape to Cairo” by railroad;
*Boer Way
war dragged on from 1899-1902; fierce guerilla resistance by the Boers angered the British; they responded by burning crops and herding about 120,000 Boer women and children into detention camps where lack of food caused some 20,000 deaths; eventually the vastly larger British army won; 1910 British created an independent Union of South Africa which combined the old Cape Colony and the Boer Republics; the new state would be a self-governing nation within the British Empire; to appease the Boers the British agreed that only white with a few propertied Africans would vote’
*Berlin Conference
At talks in Berlin hosted by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, delegates sought an orderly, “carving up” of African interior. Each nation sought to secure its claim to Africa’s rich resources. Most shared the views of Belgian King Leopold II, who wrote. “I don’t want to miss the chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake.” European powers argued over geographic boundaries for their African colonies, but avoided direct conflict.
Name the seven European countries that had colonies in Africa by 1914
Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal
What reforms did Muhammad Ali introduce in Egypt during his reign?
Muhammad Ali introduced a series of reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world. He modernized the army, set up a public school system, and helped create small industries that refined sugar, produced textiles and munitions, and built ships.
What did Great Britain believe concerning the Suez Canal?
GB believing that the canal was its “lifeline to India,” GB tried to gain as much control as possible over the canal area.
In 1875 GB brought Egypt’s share in the Suez Canal. When an Egyptian army revolt against foreign influence broke out in 1881, GB suppressed the revolt
What happened to Egypt by 1914 as a result of the British belief?
Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914
In 1879 France established control over which North African country?
In 1879, after about 150, 00 French people had settled in the region of Algeria, the French government established control there.
What humiliation did Italy suffer in North Africa in 1896?
In 1896, however, the Italian invading forces were defeated. Italy now was the only European state defeated by an African state. This humiliating loss led Italy to try again in 1911. Italy invaded and seized Turkish Tripoli, which it renamed Libya.
Why did David Livingstone go to Africa?
He arrived in Africa in 1841 as a 17 year old medical missionary. During the 30 years he spent in Africa, Livingstone trekked through uncharted regions. He sometimes traveled by canoe, but mostly Livingstone walked and spent much of his time exploring the interior of the continent. During his travels through Africa, Livingstone made detailed notes of his discoveries. He sent this information back to London whenever he could. The maps of Africa were often redrawn based on Livingstone’s reports. A major goal of Livingstone’s explorations was to find a navigable river that would open Central Africa to European commerce and to Christianity.
Why did Henry Stanley go to Africa?
When Livingstone disappeared for awhile, an American newspaper, the New York Herald, hired a young journalist to find the explorer
What was Stanley’s famous words of greeting to David Livingstone?
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
What parts of Africa did King Leopold II of Belgium colonize?
King Leopold II was the real driving force behind the colonization of Central Africa. Leopold ended up with the territories around the Congo River.
What role did Africans play in the Berlin Conference?
The Berlin Conference met in 1884- 1855. It officially recognized both German and British claims for territory in East Africa. NO AFRICAN DELEGATES WERE PRESENT AT THIS CONFERENCE.
What did the Boers believe was ordained by God in relation to racial differences?
The Boers believed that white superiority was ordained by God.
They denied non- Europeans any place in their society
What were the major goals of Cecil Rhodes?
Create a series of British colonies “from the Cape to Cairo” —- all linked by a railroad
When and where did the Boer War take place?
1899- 1902 Cape Colony
What were the causes of the Boer War?
Fierce guerilla resistance by the Boers angered the British. They responded by burning crops and herding about 120,000 Boer women and children into detention camps, where lack of food caused some 20,00 deaths.
What were the results on the Boer War?
British army won. A peace treaty was signed in 1902. British created an Independent Union of South Africa, which combined the old Cape Colony and the Boer republics. The new state would be a self- governing nation within the British Empire. Only whites and a few Africans could vote
Name the two African countries that remained independent by 1914
Only Liberia, which had been created as a homeland for the formerly enslaved persons of the US, and Ethiopia remained free states.
Who tried indirect rule in Africa, and what problems did it bring about?
Sokoto, Nigeria. The system of indirect rule was basically a fraud because British administrators made all major decisions. The native authorities served chiefly to enforce those decisions. Another problem was that the policy of indirect rule kept the old African elite in power. Such a policy provided few opportunities for ambitious and talented young Africans from outside the old elite.
Who used direct rule in Africa?
France
Explain the “gap” between theory and practice in colonial policy
Westerners had exalted democracy, equality, and political freedom but did not apply these values in the colonies.
Why were many African intellectuals confused and frustrated by colonial policy? What resulted from this confusion and frustration by the early 20th century?
Native peoples began to organize political parties and movements seeking the end of foreign rule. They wanted to be independent and self- governed.
What are key factors in the decision of European governments to colonize Africa after the Industrial Revolution?
Africa was a largely untapped market for European products and had rubber, ivory, minerals, and other natural resources as well. Many Europeans also saw colonies as a way to assert their nations status as a world power.
What effect might the redrawing of national boundaries by Europeans have on nation building in African countries?
By 1914, Europeans had redrawn the map of Africa. National boundaries largely ignored the location of ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within each region. People in the Belgian Congo, for example, spoke over 200 different languages. New borders divided African kingdoms and tribes or put together ethnic groups with little knowledge of each other’s languages and customs. These changes impacted Africans long after colonial rule ended.
Compare and contrast Morel and Kipling
Kipling argues that Africans benefited from imperialism (White mans burden)
Morel argues that Africans were harmed by imperialism (black mans burden)
What 9 places owned part of Africa and what parts of Africa?
Belgian- Belgian Congo
Boer- none
British- Egypt, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Nigeria, Anglo- Egyptian Sudan, Uganda, British Somaliland, British East Africa, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Bechuanaland, Union of South Africa, Gambia
French- Morocco, Algeria, French West Africa, Togoland, French Equatorial Africa, French Somaliland, Madagascar
German- Cameroons, German East Africa, German Southwest Africa
Italian- Libya, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea
Ottoman and Egyptian- none
Portuguese- Angola, Nyasaland, Cabinda, Portuguese Guinea
Spanish- Ifni, Spanish Sahara, Rio de Oro, Spanish Morocco
*British East India Company
British government gave a trading company power to become actively involved in India’s political and military affairs; to rule India the British East India Company had its own soldiers and forts; hired Indian soldiers (sepoys) to protect the company’s interests in the region; over the course of the 18th century
sepoy
an Indian soldier that was hired by the British East India Company; used to protect the company’s interests in the region
*Sepoy Rebellion (Sepoy Mutiny)
1857 a growing Indian distrust of the British led to a revolt; revolt was called the Sepoy Mutiny; Indians called it the First War of Independence; neutral observers label it the Great Rebellion; major immediate cause of revolt was a rumor that the troops’ new rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat; the cow was sacred to the Hindus and the pig was taboo to Muslims; to load a rifle at that time, soldiers had to bite off the end of the cartridge; to the sepoys touching theses greased cartridges to their lips would mean that they were polluted; a group of sepoys at an army post in Meerut (near Delhi) refused to load their rifles with cartridges; the British charged them with mutiny, publicly humiliated them and put them in prison; this treatment of their comrades enraged the sepoy troops in Meerut; they went on a rampage killing 50 European men women and children; soon other Indians joined the revolt including an Indian princess whose land the British had taken; within a year Indian troops loyal to the British and fresh British troops had crushed the rebellion; although Indian troops fought bravely and outnumbered the British by about 230,000 to 45,000 (not well organized); rivalries between Hindus and Muslims kept the Indians from working together
Kanpur (Cawnpore)
rivalries between Hindus and Muslims kept the Indians from working together; atrocities were terrible on both sides; at Kanpur, Indians massacred 200 defenseless women and children in a building known as the House of Ladies; Recapturing Kanpur, the British took their revenge before executing the Indians
Queen Victoria
as a result of uprising; 1876; took title of Empress of India; people of India were now her colonial subjects and India became her “Jewel in the Crown”;
viceroy
a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch; after the Sepoy Mutiny the British government began to rule India directly; they appointed a British official known as a viceroy; A British civil service staff appointed the viceroy; staff of about 3,500 officials ruled almost 300 million people the largest colonial population in the world; British rule involved both benefits and costs for Indians
zamindar
British sent zamindars in rural areas to collect taxes; British believed that using these local officials would make it easier to collect taxes from the peasants; however the zamindars in India took advantage of their new authority; they increased taxes and forced the less fortunate peasants to become tenants or lose their land entirely; peasant unrest grew;
*Indian National Congress (INC)
1855; a small group of Indians met in Bombay (Mumbai), to form the INC; did not demand immediate independence; instead it called for a share in the governing process; had difficulties because of religious differences; sought independence for ALL Indians; many leaders were Hindu and reflected Hindu concerns; later Muslims called for the create of a separate Muslim league
Muslim League
result of separation from INC; Muslims wanted their own league; such a league would represent the interests of millions of Muslims in Indian society
*Mohandas Gandhi
was born in 1869 in Gujarat in western India; he studied in London and became a lawyer; in 1893 he went to South Africa to work in a law firm serving Indian workers there; he soon learned racial exploitation of Indians while living in South Africa; Gandhi became active in the independent movement when he returned to India; using his experience in South Africa he began a movement based on nonviolent resistance; its aim was to force the British to improve the lot of the poor and to grant independence to India; movement led to Indian independence
*Rabindranath Tagore
most famous Indian author; winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913; great writer and poet; many talents; social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher singer, painter, and international spokesperson for the moral concerns of his age; set to music the Bengali poem Bande Matarm (Hail to thee Mother); became Indian nationalism’s first anthem; like to invite the great thinkers of the time to his expansive country home or estate where he set up a school that became an international university; life mission was to promote pride in a national Indian consciousness in the face of British domination; wrote a widely read novel in which he portrayed the love-hate relationship of India toward its colonial mentor; the novel reflected an Indian people who admired and imitated the British but who agonized over how to establish their own identity; life work= long prayer for human dignity, world peace, and mutual understanding and union of East and West
What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion?
In 1857 a growing Indian distrust of the British led to a revolt
The major immediate cause of the revolt was a rumor that the troop’s new rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat.
i. The cow was sacred to the Hindus
ii. The pig was taboo to the Muslims
What were the results of the Sepoy Rebellion?
As a result of the uprising, the British Parliament transferred the powers of the East India Company directly to British government.
In 1876 Queen Victoria took the title Empress of India
Although the rebellion failed, it helped to fuel Indian nationalism
The rebellion marked the first significant attempt by the people of South Asia to throw off British Raj (rule)
Read the Info graphics on “The Great Rebellion in India” on pg. 467 and answer the two questions there?
83.6% sepoys of the British East India Company in 1857
They must promise to be “good little sepoys” They had to respect/ treated like slaves.
How did the British rule of India change after the Sepoy Rebellion?
After the Sepoy Mutiny, the British government began to rule India directly. They appointed a British official known as a viceroy (a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch). A British civil service staff assisted the viceroy.
Had the largest colonial population in the world
According to your textbook, what benefits did British rule bring to India?
British rule in India had several benefits for subjects. It brought order and stability to a society badly divided into many states with different political systems. It also led to a fairly honest, efficient government. Through the efforts of the British administrator and historian Lord Thomas Macaulay, a new school system was setup. The goal of the new school system was to train Indian children to serve in the government and army. The new system served only elite, upper- class Indian, however. Ninety persenct of the population remained uneducated and illiterate. The British hired Indians and built roads, canals, universities, and medical centers. A postal service was introduced shortly after it appeared in Great Britain. India’s first rail network, beginning in Bombay, opened in 1853. By 1900, 25,000 miles of railroads crisscrossed India.
What does your textbook give as the costs of British rule in India?
a. British manufactured goods destroyed local industries. British textiles put thousands of women out of work and severly damaged the Indian textile industry
b. The British sent the zamindars to collect taxes. The British believed that using these local officials would make it easier to collect taxes from peasants, however, the zamindars increased taxes and forced the less fortunate peasants to become tenants or lose their land entirely.
c. The British also encouraged many farmers to switch from growing food to growing cotton. As a result, food supplies could not keep up with the growing population. Between 1800 and 1900, 30 million Indians died of starvation
Discuss how British use of the Taj Mahal demonstrated British disrespect for India’s cultural heritage?
The Taj Mahal was built as a tomb for the beloved wife of an Indian ruler. The British used it as a favorite site for weddings and parties. Many partygoers even brought hammers to chip off pieces as souvenirs. British racial attitudes led to the rise of an Indian national movement.
What were the original goals of the Indian National Congress?
In 1885 a small group of Indians met in Bombay to form the Indian National Congress. The INC did not demand immediate independence. Instead, it called for a share in the governing process.
The INC had difficulties because of religious differences. THE INC sought independence for all Indians, regardless of class or religious background. However many of its leaders were Hindu and reflected Hindu concerns. Later, Muslims called for the creation of a separate Muslim League.
What inspired the cultural revival in India that began in the 19th century? In what ways was this cultural revival expressed?
The love- hate tension in India that arose from British domination led to a cultural awakening as well. The cultural revival began in the early 19th century with the creation of a British college in Calcutta. A local publishing house was opened. It issued textbooks on a variety of subjects, including the sciences, Sanskrit, and Western literature. The publisher also printed grammars and dictionaries in various Indian languages. This revival soon spread to other regions of India. It led to a search for a new national identity and a modern literary expression.

Indian novelists and poets began writing historical romances and epics. Some wrote I nEnglish, but most were uncomfortable with a borrowed colonial language. They preferred to use their own regional tongues.

Why is Rabindranth Tagore considered a Renaissance man? To what cause did he devote his life’s work?
The most famous Indian author was Rabindranath Tagore, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1913. A great writer and poet, Tagore had many talents. He was also a social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher, singer, painter, and international spokesperson for the moral concerns of his age. He set to music the Bengali poem Bande Mataram, which became Indian nationalisms first anthem. Tagore liked to invite great thinkers of time to his expansive country home. There he set up a school that became an international university.

Tagore’s life mission was to promote pride in a national Indian consciousness in the face of British domination. He wrote a widely read novel in which he portrayed the love hate relationship of India toward its colonial mentor. The novel reflected an Indian people who admired and imitated the British but who agonized over how to establish their own identity.
Tagore, however, was more than an Indian nationalist. His life’s work was one long prayers for human dignity, world peace, and the mutual understanding and union od East and West.

*Opium War
grown in northern India under the sponsorship of the British East India Company and then shipped directly to Chinese markets; demand for opium (highly addictive drug in South China) jumped dramatically; silver was flowing out of China and into the pockets of the British East India Company; Chinese reacted strongly and British were not first to import opium into China; Chinese gov had seen opium’s dangerous qualities and made its trade illegal; appealed to British gov on moral grounds to stop traffic in opium;
British refused to halt activity. Chinese blockaded the foreign area in Guangzhou (whatever that is) to force traders to surrender their opium. British responded with force starting the opium war. British warships destroyed the Chinese (coastal & river forts). When a British fleet sailed almost unopposed up the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River to Nanjing, the Qing dynasty made peace. The Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 the Chinese agreed to open five coastal ports to British trade, limit taxes on imported British goods, and pay for costs of war. China agreed to give British Hong Kong. Europeans lived in their own sections and were subject not to Chinese laws, but their own laws (extraterritoriality)
*Tai Ping Rebellion
the failure of Chinese government to deal with pressing internal economic problems led to peasant revolt (Tai Ping Rebellion), 1850-1864; led by Hong Xiuquan a Christian convert who viewed himself as a younger brother of Jesus; Hong Xiuquan believed God gave him the mission of destroying the Qing dynasty; eventually captured the town of Yongan and proclaimed new dynasty (the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace aka Tai Ping Tianguo in Chinese); rebellion appealed to many people because it called for social reforms including giving land to all peasants and treating women as equals, women even served in their own units in the Tai Ping army; rebellion called for people to give up private possessions and peasants were to hold lands/farms in common, money, food, and clothing were to be shared equally by all, outlawed tobacco and eliminated the binding of women’s feet; March 1853 rebels seized Nanjing and massacred 25,000 men, women and children; revolution continued for 10 more years but began to fall apart; Europeans came to the aid of the Qing dynasty and they realized the destructive nature of the Tai Ping forces; there was no hope “of any good ever coming of the rebel movement they do nothing but burn, murder and destroy” (British observer)

In 1864, Chinese forces w/ European aid recaptured Nanjing and destroyed remaining rebel force; Tai Ping Rebellion was one of most devastating civil wars in history; 20 million people died during the 14 year struggle; ongoing struggle with the West prevented the Qing dynasty from dealing effectively with the internal unrest

spheres of influence
ominous change taking place in Chinese heartland; European states began to create the spheres of influence which is areas where the imperial powers had exclusive trading rights; after Tai Ping Rebellion warlords in the provinces began to negotiate directly with foreign nations in return for money the warlords granted these nations exclusive trading rights or railroad building and mining privileges; Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan all established the spheres of influence in Japan
self-strengthening
the reformers that were listened to by the Qing court called for a new policy called “self-strengthening”; that is China should adopt Western technology but keep its Confucian values and institutions
Empress of Dowager Ci Xi
aunt of emperor Guang Xu; opposed new reform program; became a dominant force at court and opposed the emperor’s reforms; with aid of the imperial army, she eventually imprisoned the emperor; other supports of the reform were imprisoned, exiled, or prosecuted; actions ended Guang Xu’s reforms
*Open Door Policy
1899 US secretary of state John Hay sent notes to the major powers asking them to uphold “Chinese territorial and administrative” integrity and guarantee “equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire”; general lack of response, Hay announced in 1900 that his Open Door policy had been approved; reflected American concern for the survival of China and interests of some US trading companies; these companies wanted to operate in open markets and disliked the existing division of China into separate spheres of influence dominated by individual states; ODP did not end system of spheres of influence however it did reduce restrictions on foreign imports imposed by the dominating power within each sphere; ODP helped reduce imperialist hysteria over access to China market
*Boxer Rebellion
ODP came too late to stop the Boxer Rebellion; Boxer was a popular name given to members of a secret organization called the Society of Harmonious Fists; members practiced a system of exercise a form of shadowboxing or boxing with an imaginary opponent and that they thought would protect them from bullets (wow they are so incredibly smart), Boxers were upset by foreign takeover of Chinese lands; “destroy the foreigner;” disliked Christian missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity who seemed to threaten the Chinese traditions; response to killings of missionaries and Chinese Christians was immediate and overwhelming; William II emperor of Germany heard of the envoy’s fate he sent German troops to China and declared “Show no mercy! Take no prisoners!” An allied army consisting of 20,000 British, French, German, Russian American, and Japanese troops attacked Beijing in August 1900; Chinese government was forced to pay a heavy indemnity (payment for damages to the powers that had crushed their uprising; imperial government was now weaker than ever
Tokugawa
1800; shogunate had ruled Japan for 200 years; maintained an isolationist policy; keeping formal relations only with Korea and allowing only Dutch and Chinese merchants at its port at Nagasaki (wherever that is); Western nations wanted to end Japan’s isolation, believing that the expansion of trade on a global basis would benefit all nations
Commodore Matthew Perry
summer of 1853; arrived in Edo Bay with an American fleet of four war-ships; sought to “bring a singular and isolated people into the family of civilized nations;” brought a letter from President Millard Fillmore asking the Japanese for better treatment of sailors shipwrecked on Japanese islands, also ask to open foreign relations between the US and Japan; Perry returned six months later for an answer with a larger fleet; some shogunate officials recommended concessions (political compromises); Japan agreed to the Treaty of Kanagwa and it provided for the return of ship wrecked American sailors; opened two ports to Western traders and established a US consulate in Japan; 1858, US Consul Townsend Harris signed a more detailed treaty; called for opening new ports to US trade and residence as well as an evidence of ministers; Japan soon signed similar treaties with other European nations
*Meiji Restoration
Sat-Cho leaders had genuinely mistrusted the West, but they soon realized that Japan must change to survive; new leaders embarked on a policy of reform, transforming Japan into a modern industrial nation; the symbol of a new era was young emperor Mutsuhito; “Enlightened Rule;” or now known as the Meiji Restoration; Sat-Cho rulers controlled the Meiji ruler; transformation of politics Meiji economics, military & education, modern & social structure;
List the reasons for the abrupt decline and fall of the Qing dynasty?
The important reason for the abrupt decline and fall of the Qing dynasty was the intense
external pressure that the modern West applied to Chinese society. However, internal
problems that the government was slow to address also played a role.
What three things highlighted the growing weakness of the Qing dynasty?
a. Ships
b. Guns
c. Ideas of foreigners
Explain what it means that the British had an unfavorable trade balance in China?
British imported more goods from China than it exported to China.
What caused the Opium War? Who won?
The British refused to halt their activity, however. As a result, the Chinese
blockaded the foreign area in Guanzhou to force traders to surrender their
opium. The British responded with force, starting the Opium War.

The Chinese were no match for the British. British warships destroyed Chinese
coastal and river forts. BRITISH WON.

What were the terms of the Treaty of Nanjing?
In the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, the Chinese agreed to open five coastal ports
to British trade, limit taxes on imported British goods, and pay for the costs
of war. China also agreed to give the British the island of Hong Kong. Nothing
was said in the treaty about the opium trade. More- over, in the five ports,
Europeans lived in their own sections and were subject not to Chinese laws but
to their own laws—- a practice known as EXTRATERRITORIALITY.
What factors led to the Tai Ping Rebellion? What happened during the rebellion?
The failure of the Chinese government to deal with pressing internal economic
problems led to a peasant revolt, known as the Tai Ping Rebellion.

Hong’s rebellion also called for people to give up their private possessions.
Peasants were to hold lands and farms in common. Money, food, and clothing
were to be shared equally by all. Hong outlawed alcohol and tobacco and
eliminated the practice of binding women’s feet.
ii. In March 1853, the rebels seized Nanjing, the 2nd largest city of the empire, and
massacred 25,000 men, women, and children. The revolt continued for 10 more
years but gradually began to fall apart. Europeans came to the aid of all the Qing
dynasty when they realized the destructive nature of the Tai Ping forces. “of any
good ever coming of the rebel movement. They do nothing but burn, murder,
and destroy.”
In 1864, Chinese forces, with European aid, recaptured Nanjing and
destroyed the remaining rebel force. The Tai Ping Rebellion was one of the most
devastating civil wars in history. As many as 20 million people died during the 14
yr. struggle.

What did the Chinese government agree to in the Treaty of Tianjin?
China’s ongoing struggle with the West prevented the Qing dynasty from dealing
effectively with the internal unrest. Beginning in 1856, the British and the French
applied force to gain greater trade privileges. As a result of the Treaty of Tianjin in 1858,
the Chinese agreed to legalize opium trade and to open new ports to foreign trade. They
also surrendered the Kowloon Peninsula to Great Britain. When the Chinese resisted
parts of the treaty, the British seized Beijing in 1860.
What changes were suggested?
China should adopt Western technology but keep its Confucian values and
institutions.
ii. Some reformers wanted to change China’s traditional political institutions
by introducing democracy. However, such ideas were too radical for most
reformers.

iii.
During the last quarter of the 19th century, the Chinese government
tried to modernize China’s military forces and build up industry without
touching the basic elements of Chinese civilization.
1. Railroads, weapons factories, and shipyards were built
2. Chinese value system remained unchanged
iv.
In the end, however, the changes didn’t help the Qing stay in power.
The European advance into China continued during the last 2 decades of the
19th century.
1. Internal conditions also continued to deteriorate

Which nations established spheres of influence in China and why?
After the Tai Ping Rebellion, warlords in the provinces began to negotiate directly with
foreign nations. In return for money, the warlords granted these nations exclusive
trading rights or railroad- building and mining privileges. In this way, BRITAIN, FRANCE,
GERMANY, RUSSIA, and JAPAN all establish spheres of influence in China.
What edicts did Guang Xu issue during the One Hundred Days of Reform?
He issued edicts calling for major political, administrative, and educational
reforms. With these reforms, Guang intended to train the military to use modern
weapons and Western fighting techniques. (Conservatives at court and Empress
Dowager Ci Xi opposed these edicts)
What were the terms of the Open Door policy?
Proposed by John Hay, that asked each country to respect the equal trading
opportunities in China. Also, he asked the powers with a sphere of influence not to
set tariffs that would give an unfair advantage to the citizens of their own country.
Why would the U.S. want to allow open access to China?
The Open Door policy reflected American concern for the survival of China. It
also reflected the interests of some U.S. trading companies. These companies
wanted to operate in open markets and disliked the existing division of China into
separate spheres of influence dominated by individual states.
What prompted the Boxer Rebellion?
The boxers (members of the secret organization called the Society of
Harmonious Fists) were upset by the foreign takeover of Chinese lands. Their slogan
was “destroy the foreigner.” They especially disliked Christian missionaries and
Chinese converts to Christianity who seemed to threaten Chinese traditions.
What took place during the Boxer Rebellion and how did it end?
At the beginning of 1900, Boxer bands roamed the countryside and
slaughtered foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians. Their victims also included
foreign businessmen and even the German envoy to Beijing. Response to the killings
of missionaries and Chinese Christians was immediate and overwhelming.
What were the results of the Boxer Rebellion?
An allied army consisting of 20,000 British, French, German, Russian,
American, and Japanese troops attacked Beijing in August 1900. The army restored
order and demanded more concessions from the Chinese government. The Chinese
government was forged to pay a heavy indemnity (payment for damages) to the
powers that had crushed the uprising. The imperial government was now weaker
than ever.
What was significant about the Commodore Matthew Perry’s arrival in Edo
(Tokyo) Bay, Japan, in 1853?
His arrived with an American fleet of four ships and a letter from President
Millard Fillmore asking the Japanese for better treatment of sailors shipwrecked on
the Japanese islands and to open foreign relations between the United States and
Japan. Perry returned about six months later with a larger fleet, and the guns of
Perry’s ships ultimately made Japan agree to the Treaty of Kanagawa with the
United States.
Who resisted opening Japan to foreigners, why, and how?
Who- Samurai warriors in southern territories of Satsuma and Choshu
Why- In 1863, the Sat-Cho alliance forced the shogun to promise to end
relations with the West.
How-Choshu troops fired on Western ships in the Strait of Shimonoseki, and
the Choshu fortifications were destroyed when the Westerners fired back because
they had no military experience with the Western military,
What resulted from the resistance mentioned in question #13?
The Choshu fortifications were destroyed. Also, the incident made the Sat-
Cho alliance more determined not to give in to the West. When the shogun did not
take a stronger position against the foreigners, the Sat-Cho leaders demanded that
he resign and restore the emperor’s power.
Why did the Japanese start strengthening its military and building an empire by
the early 1900s?
Japan lacked resources and had no natural room to expand. The Japanese
knew that Western nations had amassed some of their wealth and power because of
their colonies. Those colonies had provided sources of raw materials, inexpensive
labor, and markets for manufactured products. To compete, Japan wanted/needed
to expand.
What roles did the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars play in the expansion
of Japan?
Russo-Japanese- After japan defeated Russian fleets, the Russians agreed to
humiliating peace in 1905. They gave the Liaodong Peninsula back to Japan, as well
as the southern part of Sakhalin (an island north of Japan)
Blitzkrieg
Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and efficiency of the German attack on Poland. His Blitzkrieg, or “lightning war” used armored columns, called panzer divisions, supported by airplanes. Each panzer division was a strike force of about 300 tanks with accompanying forces and supplies. The forces of blitzkrieg broke quickly thru Polish lines and enriched the bewildered Polish troops. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold the newly conquered territory. Within four weeks, Poland had surrendered. On Sept 28, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland.
Maginot Line
After a winter of waiting, Hitler resumed the attack on April 9, 1940 with another blitzkrieg against Denmark and Norway. One month later on May 10, Germany launched an attack on the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The main assault was thru Luxembourg and the Ardennes Forest. German panzer divisions broke thru weak French defensive positions there and raced across northern France. French and British forces were taken by surprise. Anticipating a German attack, France had built a defense system, called the Maginot Line, along its border with Germany. The line was series of concrete and steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery.
Dunkirk
By going around the Maginot Line, the Germans split the Allied armies. French troops and the entire British army were trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk (in France). Only thru the heroic efforts of the royal Navy and civilians in private boats did the British manage to evacuate 338,000 Allied troops in May 1940.
Vichy France
The French signed an armistice on June 22, 1940. German armies now occupied about three-fifths France. An authoritarian regime under German control was set up over the remainder of the country. It was known as Vichy France and was led by an aged French hero of World War I, Marshal Henri Petain. Germany was now in control of western and central Europe, but Britain had still not been defeated. In fact, after Dunkirk, the British resolve heightened, and Britain appealed to the US for help.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President that denounced the aggressors, but the US followed a strict policy of isolationism. A series of neutrality acts, passed in the 1930’s, prevented the US from taking sides or becoming involved in any European wars. Many Americans felt that the US had been drawn into WWI due to economic involvement in Europe, and they wanted to prevent a recurrence. Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality acts actually encouraged Axis aggression and wanted to the acts repealed. They were gradually relaxed as the US supplied food, ships, planes, and weapons to Britain.
Battle of Britain
Hitler realized that an amphibious (landsea) invasion of Britain could succeed only if Germany gained control of the air. At the beginning of August 1940, the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) launched a major offensive. German planes bombed British air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries. The British fought back with determination. They were supported by an effective radar system that gave them early warning of German attacks. Nevertheless, by the end of August, the British air force had suffered critical losses. In September, in retaliation for a a British attack on Berlin, Hitler ordered a shift in strategy. Instead of bombing military targets, the Luftwaffe began massive bombing of British cities. Hitler hoped in this way to break British morale. Instead, because military targets were not being hit, the British were able to rebuild their air strength quickly. Soon, the British air force was inflicting major loses on Luftwaffe bombers. At the end of Sept, Hitler postponed the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
Pearl Harbor
On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. The surprise attack damaged or destroyed over 350 aircraft, damaged or sunk 18 ships, and killed or wounded 3500 Americans. The same day, the Japanese attacked the Philippines and advanced on the British colony of Malaya. Later, they invaded the Dutch East Indies and occupied a number of islands in the Pacific Ocean. On the Bataan Peninsula and the island of Corregidor in the Philipines, resistance was fierce. The Japanese led captured American and Filipino soldiers on a 60-mile forced march, the Bataan Death March. Thousands died of starvation or mistreatment before reaching the prison camp. By the spring of 1942, almost all of Southeast Asia and much of the western Pacific had fallen to the Japanese.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
A triumphant Japan now declared the creation of a community of nations. The name given to this new “community” was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The entire region would now be under Japanese direction. Japan also announced its intention to liberate areas of Southeast Asia from Western colonial rule. For the moment, however, Japan needed the resources of the region for its war machine and treated the countries under its rule and conquered lands.
Prime Minister Tojo
Japanese leaders, like Prime Minister Tojo (formerly a general) had hoped that their lightning strike at American bases would destroy the US fleet in the Pacific. The Roosevelt administration, they thought, would now accept Japanese domination of the Pacific. The American people, in the eyes of Japanese leaders, were soft. Their easy, rich life had made them unable to fight. The Japanese miscalculated, however. The attack on Peral Harbor unified American opinion about becoming involved in the war. Once bitterly divided over participating in the war, the Americans people now took up arms. The US joined with European nations and Nationalist China in a combined effort to defeat Japan. Believing the American involvement in the Pacific would make the US ineffective in the European theater of war, Hitler declared war on the US 4 days after Pearl Harbor. Another European conflict had turned into a global war.
Grand Alliance
The entry of the US into the war created a new coalition, the Grand Alliance. To overcome mutual suspicions, the three major Allies—Great Britain, the US, and the Soviet Union—agreed to stress military operations and ignore political differences. At the beginning of 1943, the Allies agreed to fight until the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) surrendered unconditionally. The unconditional surrender principle, which required the Axis nations to surrender without any favorable condition, cemented the Grand alliance by making it nearly impossible for Hitler to divide his foes.

Axis Powers: See above (Grand Alliance)

Gen. Irwin Rommel & Afrika Korps: Defeat was far from Hitler’s mind at the beginning of 1942. As Japanese forces advanced into Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Hitler and his European allies continued fighting the war in Europe against the armies of Britain and the Soviet Union. Until late 1942, it appeared that the Germans might still prevail on the battlefield. In North Africa, the Afrika Korps, German Forces led by General Erwin Rommel, broke thru the British defenses in Egypt and advanced toward Alexandria. A renewed German offensive in the Soviet Union led to the capture of the entire Crimea in the spring of 1942. In August, Hitler boasted. By the fall of 1942, the war had turned against the Germans.

El Alamein
In North Africa, British forces had stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein in the summer of 1942.. The Germans then retreated back across the desert. In November 1942, British and American forces invaded French North Africa. They forced the German and Italian troops there to surrender in May 1943.
Stalingrad
On the Eastern Front, after the capture of the Crimea, Hitler’s generals wanted him to concentrate on the Cauasus and its oil fields. Hitler, however, decided that Stalingrad, a major industrial center on the Volga River, should be taken first. In perhaps the most terrible battle of the war, between November 1942, and February 2, 1943, the Soviets launched a counter attack. German troops were stopped, then encircled, and supply lines were cut off, all in frigid winter conditions. The Germans were forced to surrender at Stalingrad. The entire German Sixth Army, considered the best of the German troops, was lost. By February 1943, German forces in Russia were back to their positions of June 1942. By the spring of 1943, even Hitler knew that the Germans would not defeat the Soviet Union.
Battle of Coral Sea
In 1942 the tide of battle in the East also changed dramatically. In the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 7 & 8, 1942, American naval forces stopped the Japanese advance and saved Australia from being invaded. One turning point of the war in Asia came on June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island. US planes destroyed four attacking Japanese aircraft carriers. The US defeated the Japanese navy and established naval superiority in the Pacific. By the fall of 1942, Allied forces in Asia were gathering for two operations. One, commanded by US general Douglas MacArthur, would move into the Philipines thru New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. The other would move across the Pacific with a combination of US Army, Marine, and Navy attacks on Japanese-held islands. The policy called “island hopping” was to capture some Japanese-held islands and bypass others to reach Japan. In August 1942, Americans made the first assault on a Japanese-held island—Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The Japanese evacuated in February 1943 after months of brutal fighting.
PM Winston Churchill
By the beginning of 1943, the tide of battle had turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan. Axis forces in Tunisia surrendered on May 13, 1943. The Allies then crossed the Mediterranean and carried the war to Italy, an area that Winston Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain, called the “soft underbelly” of Europe. After taking Sicily, the Allies began an invasion of mainland Italy in September.
D Day/Normandy Invasion
Since the autumn of 1943, the Allies had planned an invasion of France from Great Britain, across the English Channel. Finally, on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), Allied forces under US general Dwight D Eisenhower landed on the Normandy beaches in history’s greatest naval invasion. The Allies fought their way past hidden underwater mines, treacherous barbed wire, and horrible machine gun fire. Believing the battle was a diversion and the real invasion would occur elsewhere, the Germans responded slowly. This gave the Allied forces time to set up a beachhead. Within three months, the Allies had landed tow million men and 500,000 vehicles. Allied forces then began pushing inland and broke thru German defensive lines.
Battle of the Bulge
Allied troops liberated Paris by the end of August 1944. In December, with Allied aircraft grounded, the Germans launched a counter-offensive to regain the seaport of Antwerp. The Battle of the Bulge was named for the “bulge” the German attack caused in Allied lines. By January 1943, both sides had suffered heavy losses, but the Allied lines held. In March 1945, the Allied forces crossed the Rhine River and advanced into Germany. At the end of April 1945, Allied armies in northern Germany moved toward the Elbe River, where they linked up with the Soviets.
V E Day
the public holiday celebrated in May 1945 to mark the end of World War II in Europe
Iwo Jima & Okinawa
US forces continued their island-hopping campaign. At the beginning of 1945, the acquisition of Iwo Jima and Okinawa helped the Allied military power draw even closet to the main Japanese islands. The islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa were of great strategic importance. Iwo Jima was essential to the air war on Japan. This small volcanic island had two airfields used by the Japanese to attack Allied aircraft and support their naval forces. The Allies felt that capturing Iwo Jima would lessen the Japanese threat and could aide in the invasion of the Japanese mainland. The Allies hoped that controlling Okinawa would also provide them with a base near the mainland.
Pre. Harry S Truman
The Allies were victorious in both battles, but the victories came at a great cost. Casualties were great on both sides, and many began to fear even more losses if the war in the Pacific continued. This left Harry S. Truman, who had become president after Roosevelt died in April, with a difficult decision to make. Should he use newly developed atomic weapons to bring the war to an end? If the US invaded Japan, Truman and his advisers had become convinced that American troops would suffer heavy casualties. At the time, however, only two bombs were available and no one knew how effective they would be. Truman decided to use the bombs. The first bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Both cities were leveled. Thousands of people died immediately after the bombs were dropped. Thousands more died in later months from radiation. The devastation led Emperor Hirohito to accept the Allied forces’ demands for unconditional surrender on August 14, 1945. WWII was finally over.. Seventeen million had died in battle. Perhaps 20 million civilians had perished as well. Some estimates place total losses at 60 million.
V-J Day
the day on which the surrender of Japan occurred, effectively ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event
From the invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, and the French armistice on June 22, 1940, which areas of Europe did Germany take?
a. 3/5 of France
b. ½ of Poland
c. Western and central Europe
Why was the Maginot Line unsuccessful?
a. The Germans decided not to cross the Maginot Line. Instead, they went around it and attacked France from its border with Belgium. By going around the Maginot Line, the Germans split the Allied armies. French troops and the entire British army were trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk.
What is the significance of Dunkirk?
a. Only through the heroic efforts of the Royal Navy and civilians in private boats did the British manage to evacuate 338,000 Allied (mostly British) troops.
b. After Dunkirk, the British resolve heightened, and Britain appealed to the US for help
What did the U.S. do about the war in Europe until December 7, 1941, and why?
a. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced the aggressors, but the US followed a strict policy of isolationism. A series of neutrality acts, passed in the 1930s, prevented the US from taking sides of becoming involved in any European wars. Many Americans felt that the US had been drawn into WWI due to economic involvement in Europe, and they wanted to prevent a recurrence. Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality acts actually encouraged Axis aggression and wanted the acts repealed. They were gradually relaxed as the US supplied food, ships, planes, and weapons to Britain.
Why did Hitler invade the Soviet Union? When? What was the result by December 1941?
a. Although he had no desire for a two- front war, Hitler became convinced that Britain was remaining in the war only because it expected Soviet support.If the Soviet Union was smashed, Britain’s last hope would be eliminated. Moreover, Hitler had convinced himself that the Soviet Union had a pitiful army and could be defeated quickly. Hitler’s invasions of the SU was scheduled for the spring of 1941, but was delayed because of problems in the Balkans. Hitler had already gained the political cooperation of Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. However, the failure of Mussolini’s invasions of Greece in 1940 had exposed Hitler’s southern flank to British air bases in Greece. To secure his Balkan flank, Hitler therefore seized both Greece and Yugoslavia in April. Reassured, Hitler invaded the SU on June 22, 1941. He believed that the Russians could still be decisively defeated before the brutal winter weather set in. The massive attack stretched out along 1800 miles. German troops advanced rapidly, capturing 2 million Russian soldiers. By Nov., one German army group had swept through Ukraine. A second army was besieging the city of Leningard, while a third approached within 25 miles of Moscow, the Soviet capital. An early winter and fierce Soviet resistance, however, halted the German advance. Because of the planned spring date for the invasion, the Germans had no winter uniforms. For the first time in the war, German armies had been stopped. A counterattack in December 1941 by a Soviet army came as an ominous ending to the year for the Germans.
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? When? What was the result?
a. On Dec. 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. The surprise attack damaged or destroyed over 350 aircraft, damaged or sunk 18 ships, and killed or wounded 3500 Americans. The same day, the Japanese attacked the Philippines and advanced on the British colony of Malaya. Later, they invaded the Dutch East Indies and occupied a number of islands in the Pacific Ocean. On the Bataan Peninslua and the island of Corregidor in the Philippines, resistance was fierce. The Japanese led captured American and Filipino soldiers on a 60- mile forced march, the Baatan Death March. Thousands died of starvation or mistreatment before reaching the prison camp. By the spring of 1942, almost all of Southeast Asia and much of the western Pacific had fallen to the Japanese.
When did the Battle of the Coral Sea take place, between whom, and what was its significance?
a. In the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 7th and 8th, 1942, American naval forces stopped the Japanese advance and saved Australia from being invaded.
What is considered the turning-point in the war in the Pacific? When did it occur?
a. One turning point of the war in Asia came on June 4th, at the Battle of Midway Island. US planes destroyed 4 attacking Japanese aircraft carriers. The US defeated the Japanese navy and established naval superiority in the Pacific.
What had happened to Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler by the time the war ended in Europe?
Hitler committed suicide on April 30th, two days after Italian partisans, or resistance fighters, shot Mussolini. On May 7, 19455, Germany surrendered. The war in Europe was finally over.
Why did Pres. Harry Truman decide to use nuclear weapons against Japan?
a. If the US invaded Japan, Truman and his advisers had become convinced that American troops would suffer heavy causalities.
b. First bomb on Hiroshima
c. Second bomb on Nagasaki
How many people died in World War II?
a. 60 million
Categories: History