world history chapters 12, 13, & 14

Published by admin on

what two modern day countries did the slavs occupy?
ukraine and russia
what tells the story and holds information about the Slavs?
the russian primary chronical
what northern europeans did the Slavs ask for help during the fight amongst themselves?
the Rus
who is the oldest of the 3 brothers?
rurik
what city did Rurik take over and what did he do to the slavs who lived there?
novgorod and he brought order to the slavs
who was rurik’s successor?
oleg
what city did oleg venture south to and eventually took over and became the ruler?
kiev
what river is kiev located on?
the dnieper river
what city did oleg successfully attack in order to extend kiev to the south?
constantinople
who started the close connection between the byzantine empire and the russian people by using a trade agreement?
oleg
who did the rus defeat and set their slavic tribes free?
the khazars
what was the name given to the new state that the kievan region made up?
kievan rus
who was the ruler during the height of kievan rus’s prestige and power?
yaroslav the wise
who is the leader who made many cultural and administrative improvements for the kievan rus?
yaroslav the wise
why did yaroslav hire scribes?
he made them translate religious books from greek into the slavic language
what leader of the kievan rus regained territory?
yaroslav the wise
who were the nomadic people that were defeated by yaroslav?
pechenegs
what happened to yaroslav and his military forces when he attacked constantinople?
he and his forces were crushed entirely
what did yaroslav do to maintain the trade and diplomatic relationship with other european countries?
he married his daughters with other european princes
what was the Slavic native religion based on?
nature and they also had many gods
why did the churchman in constantinople send the two monks to moravia?
to convert the slavs to christianity
what city were the two monks sent to by the churchman?
moravia
what were the names of the brother monks who were sent to moravia?
cyril and methodius
what is the name of the written alphabet created by cyril and methodius?
cyrillic alphabet
what version of christianity spread to and through russia?
the byzantine version
what two modern day coutries did the cyrillic alphabet become widespread in?
serbia and bulgaria
who was the grand duke of kiev?
vladimir I
what do people say about vladimir’s conversion to christianity?
that is was just a step to gain political and economical advantages from the byzantine empire
as christianity spread even futher into cities, what tension grew stronger?
the conflict between the east and west churches
what was set up by the head of the church in kiev?
a semi-independant church in russia
who was made saint of the russian orthodox church?
vladimir I
who built libraries, schools, and churches?
vladimir I
who were the first to attack kievan rus within its borders?
princes who had owned land that was taken over under the kievan rus state borders
who started to attack kievan rus after the princes?
outside invaders
when did yaroslav die?
1054
what was the name of the prince who captured the city of kiev and took over as the grand prince?
prince alexander bogolyubsky
what was the name of the person who led the mongols across asia and created an immense empire?
genghis khan
what happened to the empire after genghis khen died?
it was split into four regions
what part of the empire did bato khan control?
the western edge
alexander was the prince of what city?
novgorod
who encouraged the russians not to rebal against their masters?
alexander of novgorod
who attacked russian territory north of novgorod?
a band of swedes
what did the swedes want to control?
the trade route between russia and the byzantine empire
who launched a surprise attacked on the swedish camp on the neva river?
alexander of novgorod
after the victory over the swedes, what did alexander become known as?
alexander nevsky
what group of german military knights wanted to force the russians to abandon the orthodox church and join russian catholisism?
the teutonic knights
how did alexander’s forces eventually defeat the teutonic knights?
alexander led them onto a lake covered with ice and the ice cracked and the teutonic knights and horses fell into the freezing water
who emerged as the rulers over the russian empire after the mongols?
the tatars
what city became the capitol after kiev?
muscovy
what is the term for a russian land owner?
boyar
what strait is constantinople located on?
the bosporus strait
what byzantine emperor reclaimed lands in northern africa that were taken over by vandals?
justinian
who was justinian’s wife and what did she do during the nike revolt?
theodora and she refused to back down and she made her husband do the same
what is the name of the revolt that was a result of justinian’s attempts to reform the laws?
the nika revolt
what is the famous new building that was built when justinian was rebuilding the city after the nika revolt and what is its translation?
the hagia sophia and the translation is ”holy wisdom”
what is the name of the code that justinian updated and expanded to now include justinian’s laws?
justinian’s code
what happened to western provinces after the death of justinian?
they fell to migrating tribes
what group of people were defeated by heraclius because they were a constant threat on the eastern boarder?
the persians
who were settled by heraclius to act as a buffer against invaders?
the croats and the serbs
what caused the macedonian dynasty in the byzantine empire to start declining?
the feuds and conflicts between the government and the military
who defeated the byzantine army in the battle at mazikert in eastern asia minor?
the turks
who eventually attacked constantinople and then later changed the name from constantinople to istanbul?
the ottoman turks
what two germanic tribes had lived in germany and then later migrated to britain?
the anglos and the saxons
what eventually happened to the anglos and the saxons once the both settles in england and established seven small kingdoms?
thay joined together to form what was known as the anglo-saxon kingdoms
how did christianity slowly and eventually make its way into england?
augustine of canterbury led a gorup of monks and they arrived in the small kingdom of kent and there augustine converted many of the kent people and christianity slowly grew and spread outward into the rest of england
what happened with the danes and alfred the great?
the danes invaded northern england and the anglo-saxons united together under alfred the great, who was the king of wessex, and they fought against the danes and pushed them back out of england
who traveled from britain to ireland to preach christianity and is known as part of one the most famous missionaries?
patrick
who was the one who worked to change the views of the papacy, and thought that the pope was the supreme patriarch of the church?
gregory the great
who strengthened the papacy and canon law, encouraged missionary work, monasticism, and encouraged others to care for the less fortunate?
gregory the great
who was the most influential medieval theologians who used ideas from Plato to support his religious christianity teachings?
augustine of hippo
what was a medieval thologian?
people who studied religion and wrote explanations that set forth the church’s official positions
whose writings helped shape the christian doctrine?
augustine of hippo
what was the most common form of monastism in europe during the middle ages?
benedictine monasticism
who’s written rule influenced benedictine monasticism and what was the name of that rule?
benedict of nursia and benedictine rule
what is the name and location of the monastery established by benedict?
monte cassino in central italy
what was based on a combination of prayer and labor, outlined a monk’s daily schedule, and set up organization of the benedictine order?
the benedictine rule
what is the second major branch of monasticism that developed in ireland?
celtic
what was the difference between celtic abbots and the benedictines?
celtic abbots were more severe, and had greater authority.
where did the vikings come from and where did they live?
northern europe and in scandinavia(norway, denmark, sweden)
who were the viking’s first two targets?
england and northern france
what was the viking’s talent that helped them sucessfully attack many countries and cities?
their knowledge and tools in navigation and their abitly to sail well
who led the vikings to reach lands of north america?
leif eriksson
where all did the vikings settle?
iceland, on the shore of what is now modern day canada, northern france, and normandy
as the vikings were invading from the west, who was invading from the east?
the magyars
where were the magyars originally from and where did they settle?
central asia and what is now modern day hungary
the magyars were like the vikings because they were ____.
fierce warriors
the magyars were unlike the vikings because they were_____.
unskilled sailors
what was the magyars triumphantly skilled at doing?
riding horseback
what did the magyars do to their raids and what did they never do when attacking?
they planned their raids very carefully and they never attacked heavily armed cities
what did the magyars do after they raided a settlement?
they fled and avoided any type of army that was sent to defeat/fight them
by using their skillful tactics, what countries did the magyars easily raid?
eastern france, germany, northern italy, and the western byzantine empire
what eventually happened to the magyars in the mid 900s once they gave up their nomadic tactics?
king otto the great of germany crushed a huge portion of the magyar army
who crossed the strait of gibraltar and then made a rapid conquest of spain?
the muslim army
what became the muslim’s capital city on the iberian peninsula?
cordoba
what was one of the first countries to develop a strong central monarchy?
england
what two rulers claimed the crown after the death of alfred the great and which one finally was given the title of king?
harold who was an anglo-saxon and william of normandy and harold
what did william of normandy do when he lost the title of king to harold?
he sent ships to england to fight against william and his troops
what was the name of the battle between harold and william?
batlle of hastings
what was william the conqueror’s first act of duty when he became king?
he claimed all land in england then divided the land into fiefs and gave it to his norman soldiers
what was the name of the book that held the survey results of william the conqueror?
the domesday book
what document was written by nobles to king john that stated the king’s new restrictions, rights for the nobles, and explained the limitations of the government?
the magna carta
what was created in england as part of the agreement between the nobles and the king that serves as the governing body of england?
the parliament
who saw the parliament as a tool to strengthen the monarchy in england and used the parliament to help him strengthen the central government?
king edward
what is a person’s level of devotion to his or her religion?
piety
who was the first pope recongnized in the series of clever and capable popes in the papacy?
pope leo ix
who believed that europe’s clergy had become corrupt?
pope leo ix
when did the issue regarding clergy selection start to become critical?
during the pontificate/during the reign of pope gregory vii
during the pontificate time, who was the holy roman emperor?
henry iv
what happened between pope gregory iiv and henry iv?
gregory was unhappy with a new bishop choice and wa sconfronted by henry in a letter stating gregory had no power over him. gregory issued an excommunication for henry. henry fled to gregory begging him for forgivness and convinced gregory to release the excommunication.
who established a new monastery in cluny, france with hopes to live strictly to benedictine rule?
small groups of monks who wanted the monasticism to become strict once more
where was the most influential monastery in europe?
the monastery in cluny, france
what happened to the monks who were still disatisfied with the benedictine life not being strict enough?
they created new orders such as the cistercian
what was the most famous new monastic orders issued by the monks?
cistercian
why were the crusades fought/what was the goal of the crusades?
to claim back the holy land that was under muslim control
name the crusade described:
this crusade was spilt into two groups(peasants and trained knights) and once the peasants made it to jerusalem were killed by the seljuk turk army. after 3 years of traveling, the crusaders reached jerusalem and defeated the prepared muslim army. years after this crusade however, muslims regained the holy land
the first crusade
what happened during the second crusade?
the crusade was complete failure and were forced to go back to europe
during the third crusade, who was the leader of the muslim’s?
saladin
was the third crusade a succsess or a failure?
failure
how many total crusades were there?
9
what were some political effects from the crusades?
many nobles and knights were killed in battle leaving their lands behind. kings took their lands and gained more power
what were some economic effects from the crusades?
the crusades enhanced trade and brought goods back to europe
what were some social effects from the crusades?
the crusaders broughts knowledge of muslim culture and people grew more respect and tolerant to other religionzs and beliefs. other people however, became more intolerant with other religions and began persecuting jews in europe
who was the nearest living relative to the king the french king who died without a son?
king edward iii
who did the french decide was the rightful heir to the dead king?
king philip vi
who invaded france and started the hundred years war?
king edward
what were the new weapons used by king edward and his troops during the 100 years war that helped them win after win?
the crossbow and the cannon
under who’s rule did the english march all the way to the gates of paris?
henry v
who helped change the coarse of the 100 years war?
joan of arc
who claimed that spirits talked to her and told her to lead the french into battle?
joan of arc
how did joan of arc die?
she was burned on a stake by the english
how did the 100 years war end?
the french went and claimed back the lands taken by the english and drove the english completely out of their country
what war followed the hundred years war?
the war of roses
what caused the war of roses?
two families fought over who should be in the english throne
who were the two families that fought in the war of roses and what color roses represented which?
the landcasters- red roses
the yorks- white roses
which family took the throne first in england during the war of roses and who was their king?
the yorks and edward iv
what happened during the war of roses after edward iv’s death?
the king’s sons disappeared and the king’s brother became king
who started the rebellion against king richard iii during the war of roses?
duke of buckingham
who dies in the battle of bosworth?
king edward iii of england
who claimed the throne after edward iii in england?
henry vii from the tudor family
Categories: History