English Literature 12: Chapter 1
(2) Responsiveness to nature, especially in her sterner moods.
(3) Strong religious convictions and a belief in Wyrd, or Fate;
(4) Reverence for womanhood.
(5) Devotion to glory as the ruling motive in every warrior’s life.
• Some wandered from place to place, others were attached to one household to provide local entertainment.
• He was an original poet but a performer, a chanter, a harper, and sometimes a jester and a juggler.
• They are separated by a //*pause*// or //*caesura*//.
And *alliteration*-beginning words with the same consonant sound.
• Hyphenated words.
• Stands on the plains of Salisbury in southern England.
• Possibly for pagan worship or ways to keep track of the yearly paths of the sun.
• Sometime later, a new group of people, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, crossed the North Sea from Europe to England, and England’s earliest people passed into mystery.
• The _*Anglo-Saxons*_ would give England her name, her language, and the beginnings of her literature.
• The greatest of the Anglo-Saxon poems and the oldest surviving epic of any Germanic people.
• A folk or traditional epic.
• Has no one author but was passed down through many generations.
• _*THINGS THAT //BEOWULF// HAS THAT MANY TRADITIONAL QUALITIES ON AN EPIC DO:_
*(1)* It is about a _great national hero._
*(2)* It is written in _lofty language._ //(Not intentionally but bc it was meant to be performed)//
*(3)* It contains _supernatural elements/aide._
*(4)* It explores _the struggle of good and evil._
• This text was probably written, copied, and preserved bemoans who added certain Christian elements to this Old World heathen story.
• Was not discovered until the 18th century and was not printed until the 19th century.
• Is about a story of a man struggling against three monstrous and mysterious incarnations of evil.
• The narrative is divided into 3 parts.
• Central in each section is the life and death struggle between the hero and some supernatural adversary.
• _*THE FIRST SECTION:*_ It related Beowulf’s fight with //Grendel//,
• _*THE SECOND SECTION:*_ Tells of the confrontation with //Grendel’s mother//, and
• _*THE THIRD SECTION:*_ Takes place 50 years later as Beowulf slays the fire-breathing //dragon// plaguing his homeland.
• Basically a dude who has life at sea and starts comparing his life with those who live in land.
• The moth is actually the thief = ironic.
• shows that the Anglo-Saxons knew the dangers of drinking.
• The other one that The Venerable Bede wrote about was the story of • _Caedmon_, which is _//the first Anglo-Saxon poet whose name we know.//_ Caedmon was also called _”the Anglo-Saxon Milton.”_ He was a simple herdsman who lived at a monastery at Whitby in Northumbria, the cultural center of England. He also wrote poetic paraphrases of the Bible which were in the same meter as //Beowulf.//
• About *The Venerable Bede:*
– the Founder of English history.
– Knew Latin, Greek, and Hebrew & wrote over 40 textbooks.
– He wrote in Latin, except for his English translation of the Gospel of John.
– His most important work was his //Ecclesiastical History of the English People,// from which we get most of our facts about early English history.